Billy Graham Center

Papers of Glicerio "Jojo" Maniquis Manzano -
Collection 321

[Note: What follows is a description of the documents in this collection which are available for use at BGC Archives in Wheaton, Illinois, USA. The actual documents are not, in most cases, available online, only this description of them. Nor are they available for sale or rent. Some or all of this collection can be borrowed through interlibrary loan. ]

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Table of Contents

Brief Description of This Collection

Title Page and Restrictions

Biography of Jojo Manzano

An Essay on the Contents of the Collection (Scope and Content)

List of Audio Tapes in This Collection (Location Records)

List of the Contents of Boxes of Paper Records in This Collection (Container List)

Brief Description.
Three interviews with and prayer letters prepared by Manzano, documenting his education, spiritual pilgrimage, service as office manager with Inter-Varsity Christian Fellowship of the Philippines and accountant for a rural hospital with International Nepal Fellowship. The oral history interviews were recorded on 12/16/85, 12/17/85, and 12/28/85 and cover the years from 1952 to 1988. Other subjects covered include: communism, Philippine Catholicism, family life, Nepali culture, the Nepali church, and the 1987 Philippine elections.

Collection 321 [March 26, 2001]
Manzano, Glicerio "Jojo" Maniquis; 1952-
Papers; 1981-1992
1 Box (1 DC; .25 cubic feet), 4 Audio Tapes


There are no restrictions on the use of this collection.


Glicerio "Jojo" Maniquis Manzano Jr. was born October 31, 1952 in Manila, Philippines. He was the youngest of five children, having four sisters. His father, Capt. Glicerio Manzano Sr., was a lawyer; his mother, Gloria Maniquis Manzano, was a teacher in a public high school. Manzano received his early grammar school education in a Roman Catholic school, while at the same time attending a Protestant church; when eight years old he transferred to a school in the public school system, in which he continued through high school. Manzano received his college education at the Philippine College of Commerce from which he received a Bachelor of Commerce degree in 1974, specializing in accounting.

Manzano's experience working in Christian organizations began in 1972 when he served as the office secretary for the Asian office of International Fellowship of Evangelical Students (IFES). In 1973 he transferred to the office of Inter-Varsity Christian Fellowship of the Philippines (IVCF-Philippines), working as its office manager. Manzano's interest in missions began generally through his association with IVCF-Philippines, but more specifically in his attendance at the 1973 Asian Missionary Convention held in the Philippines. In anticipation of working as a missionary in India, Manzano resigned from Inter-Varsity in 1977 to begin his theological education at the Bible College of New Zealand (BCNZ) in Auckland, where he studied from 1977 to 1980. While attending BCNZ, his interest shifted from India to Nepal. Manzano joined International Nepal Fellowship (INF) prior to completing his degree at BCNZ. He served with INF in Pokhara, Nepal, as the accountant at the Shining Community Health Centre, a facility offering regular hospital services as well as treatment for and rehabilitation from leprosy. Manzano completed his first term in 1985. In his second term Manzano assumed duties as INF's treasurer.

Manzano married Rebecca "Reby" Bondad in 1979. They had three children.

Scope and Content

The collection consists of prayer letters and audio taped oral history interviews which document Manzano's early life, education, family life, and work with Inter-Varsity Christian Fellowship and International Nepal Fellowship. The prayer letters offer brief glimpses of the Manzanos' preparation to travel to Nepal, language study, daily life and special events in their family. They touch on some of the incidents covered in the interview as well as others, including a description of their first impressions of Nepal, bits of information about INF business, living conditions, ministry among Nepali students, a Nepali church, as well as a few first-hand impressions of the election and political revolution at the time of Ferdinand Marcos's removal as president from the Philippines.

The interviews with Manzano were conducted by Paul A. Ericksen on December 16, 17, and 28, 1985, in Wheaton and in Chicago, IL. The time periods of the events described in the interviews are as follows: T1, 1952-1980; T2, 1978-1985; T3, 1980-1985; T4, 1980-1985. Time elapsed in minutes and seconds is noted in the margin to the left of the topics discussed. The index is keyed to a cassette copy of the interview, not the reel-to-reel original. The boldfaced entries correspond with the Cross Reference List at the end of this guide and are intended to highlight the topics covered in the interview.

T1 - side 1
00:00 Beginning of tape
01:15 Introduction of December 16, 1985 interview
01:30 Manzano's birth and family background information; vocations of parents
02:45 Family religious affiliation mixed: educated in Catholic school while attending a Protestant Sunday school
07:15 Change in father's feelings about Roman Catholic Church
08:15 Family's religious circumstances compared with that of other Filipino families
09:30 Roman Catholicism in Philippines; sub-Catholic practices close to animism
11:30 Benefits of partipating in Protestant Sunday school; Bible teaching and social interaction
13:00 Reaction to Protestants at the Catholic school; treated like an outcast
14:30 Conversion described
16:45 Influential people on process of spiritual growth; response of family to conversion
20:45 College education focused on business and accounting; completed while a staff member of Inter-Varsity Christian Fellowship of the Philippines
23:15 Involvement in Inter-Varsity Christian Fellowship; membership in Inter-School Christian Fellowship while in high school led to joining a pioneer IVCF group and later leading it
28:45 Rise of communist activism among students. Manzano's leading a march and gradual drift toward communism away from IVCF. Concurrent attempt by IVCF to separate Christianity and communism
33:00 Retreating from communist inclinations
35:45 Working initially as Office secretary of IFES's regional office and then office manager for IVCF
38:15 Impact of IVCF's growth on finances and policies
40:30 Conflict between administrative duties and desire to have a ministry among students
41:30 Interest on Christian work focused to missionary service at missions convention
44:00 End of tape

Tape T1 - side 2
00:00 Beginning of tape
00:15 Overlap from side 1
02:15 Joining Inter-Varsity Christian Fellowship as staff worker; influence of IVCF's missions emphasis on personal involvement in missions
04:00 Developing interest in missions in India; study in Bible College in New Zealand
08:30 Serious illness while deciding between Christian work and secular work for career direction
10:30 Decision to go to Bible College of New Zealand
12:00 Description of course work
13:15 Adjustments: British English and education system
16:15 Struggle with question of why he had come to New Zealand: Philippine degree not recognized
21:30 Comparison between church experiences in the Philippines and New Zealand
25:45 Difficult cultural adjustment to interacting with Europeans as the majority; loss of identity as a Christian worker
30:30 People who helped through difficult first year
32:00 End of tape

Tape T2 - side 1
00:00 Beginning of tape
01:00 Introduction of December 17, 1985 interview
01:15 Change of focus from India to Nepal. Contact with and interest in International Nepal Fellowship
04:30 Application procedure for candidacy with International Nepal Fellowship and orientation on the field
07:00 Language learning process; comparison with wife's language acquisition Decription of Nepali language; example of Nepali speech
18:45 Description of International Nepal Fellowship's administrative and decision-making structure
24:45 INF's financial policies and fund raising philosophy; components of missionaries' salaries
31:15 Distinctive features of International Nepal Fellowship; emphases, history
32:45 Introduction of Christianity into Nepal when INF began its work there.
33:15 Government attitude toward the mission and Christians; persecution through "blitzes", involving arrests and church closings. Impact of persecution on Christians
40:15 Estimates of Christian population ranging from 10,000 to 25,000. Approximately 1000 in Pokhara
42:00 Nepali Church's reliance on baptism as a genuine sign of conversion due to the social stigma attached to it
44:00 End of tape

Tape T2 - side 2
00:00 Beginning of tape
00:05 Overlap from side 1
04:15 Social consequences of converting to Christianity
05:00 Dynamics of conversion within families and other social units; frequent falling away due to persecution from blitzes and social pressure
08:30 Positive and negative attractions of Christianity to Nepalis
11:15 Nepali Hinduism and reaction to God of Christianity. Absence of syncretism in the among Nepali Christians
14:00 Process of joining a local church. Changes resulting from conversion
17:15 Absence of a Nepali concept of guilt; carryover into the Nepali church
21:00 Caste system in Nepal; carryover into Nepali church
24:30 Manzano's typical day; impact of heavy work load on family, church, mission and personal devotional life
30:30 End of tape

Tape T3 - side 1
00:00 Beginning of tape
01:45 Introduction to Dec. 28, 1985 interview
02:00 Nepalis' attitudes to missionaries; misconceptions about missionaries
05:30 Advantages and disadvantages of Manzano's Asian origin as a missionary among Nepalis
10:15 Disparities between lifestyle of missionaries and Nepali Christians
14:45 International Nepal Fellowship's philosophy of ministry
17:00 Role of missionaries in Nepali church; encouraging indigenous administration
20:15 Feelings about submitting to Nepali church leadership
21:30 Strengths of Nepali Church: courage and growth; weaknesses: untrained leadership and illiteracy
25:45 Threats to continuation of Nepali Church - persecution, materialism
28:15 Typical Nepali Sabbath day for Christians and for Hindus; celebrated on Saturday
30:45 Characterization of Nepali preaching
32:00 Description of typical Nepali church building
34:15 Nepali music
35:15 Mission philosophy on contextualizing the Gospel
37:30 Nepali customs among Christians that concern the missionaries
40:30 Nepali family structure and culture
42:00 Cultural blunders made in Nepal
44:15 End of tape

Tape T3 - side 2
00:00 Beginning of tape
00:15 Overlap from side 1
02:15 Continued discussion about cultural blunders
02:45 Meeting Rebecca "Reby" Bondad while working for IVCF; married in 1979; role of missions commitment in the decision to marry
05:00 International Nepal Fellowship's view of wife's role in the Mission
06:30 Examples of Reby's involvement in INF work and domestic tasks; Reby's feelings characterized
09:00 Advantages of raising children in a primitive mission situation
10:45 Obstacles and aids to building a strong marriage on the mission field
12:30 Thoughts about sending children away for school when they are eleven
13:30 Minimal health problems while in Nepal
14:00 Most and least enjoyable aspects of work; frustration of limited time for ministry
17:00 Role of sense of humor in being a missionary
20:45 Comparison between his and Reby's cultural adjustments
22:30 End of tape

Tape T4 - side 1
00:00 Beginning of tape
01:45 Diseases treated at the Shining Community Health Centre
02:15 Description hospital facilities; new hospital jointly run by INF and the Nepali government; evaluation of health facilities and care
04:00 Hospital's impact on health conditions in the area
06:00 Hospital's source of finances and supplies
07:00 Staffing of the hospital by missionaries and nationals; INF's desire to maintain its role in the hospital as a base for work within Nepal
09:45 Thoughts about self as a missionary during the first term; looking at goals for second term
12:00 End of interview


The interviews in this collection were received by the Center in December 1985 and January 1986 from Glicerio M. Manzano Jr. Subsequent prayer letters were received and added to the collection periodically, 1987-1992.

Accession 85-73, 86-2, 87-138
November 12, 1987
Paul A. Ericksen
J. Watson
J. Nasgowitz

January 14, 1994
Sara Henning
P. Ericksen
M. Larson

Accession 85-173, 86-2
Type of Material: Audio Tapes
The items listed below are located in the AUDIO TAPE FILE:

T1 - Reel-to-reel, 3-3/4 ips, 85 minutes. One side only. Interview with Glicerio Manzano, Jr. by Paul Ericksen. Discussion of Manzano's background, Catholic schooling, Protestant Sunday school, Roman Catholicism in Philippines, Conversion, Inter-Varsity Christian Fellowship of the Philippines, communism, missionary service, Bible College of New Zealand and cultural adjustments; December 16, 1985.

T2 - Reel-to-reel, 3-3/4 ips, 70 minutes. One side only. Interview with Glicerio Manzano, Jr. by Paul Ericksen. Discussion of International Nepal Fellowship, missionary application, language study, government relations with Christians, Pokhara, baptism, conversion, persecution, Hinduism, caste system, and personal devotional life; December 17, 1985.

T3 - Reel-to-reel, 3-3/4 ips, 65 minutes. One side only. Interview with Glicerio Manzano, Jr. by Paul Ericksen. Discussion of Asian origin as missionary among Nepalis, indigenous administration, persecution, Sabbath, preaching, Hindus, mission philosophy on contextualizing, family, cultural blunders, Rebecca "Reby" Bondad, women in missionary work, children on the mission field, and marriage; December 28, 1985.

T4 - Reel-to-reel, 3-3/4 ips, 12 minutes. One side only. Continuation of interview. Discussion of Shining Community Health Centre, relations between International Nepal Fellowship and the Nepali government, and missionaries and nationals; December 28, 1985.

Box Folder Title
1 1 Prayer letters; 1981-1992

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Last Revised: 3/26/01
Expiration: indefinite