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This is a complete and accurate transcript of the tape of the oral history interview of Stanley Roy Kline (CN 477, T4) in the Archives of the Billy Graham Center. No spoken words have been omitted, except for any non-English phrases which could not be understood by the transcribers. Foreign terms which are not commonly understood appear in italics. In very few cases words were too unclear to be distinguished. If the transcriber was not completely sure of having gotten what the speaker said, "[?]" was inserted after the word or phrase in question. If the speech was inaudible or indistinguishable, "[unclear]" was inserted. Grunts and verbal hesitations such as "ah" or "um" were usually omitted. The transcribers have not attempted to phonetically replicate English dialects but have instead entered the standard English word the speaker was expressing.
Readers should remember that this is a transcript of spoken English, which follows a different rhythm and rule than written English.
... Three dots indicate an interruption or break in the train of thought within the sentence on the part of the speaker.
.... Four dots indicate what the transcriber believes to be the end of an incomplete sentence.
( ) Words in parentheses are asides made by the speaker.
[ ] Words in brackets are comments by the transcriber.
This transcript was made by Wayne D. Weber and was completed in April 2003.
Collection 477, T4. Interview of Stanley Roy Kline by Paul A. Ericksen, January 19, 1993.
ERICKSEN: Well, we're back. When we left of yesterday, we were still talking about your first term. You had been moved to Aba.
KLINE: And we finished there.
KLINE: And then from there we went home because it was just at the end of the war [World War II]. It was the first time home after the war...after a long term. And we went out, both of us, went out single in 1937 and in 1940 and we come home married with two children. Of course our families, and our friends, and our churches were very happy to see us all...
ERICKSEN: I'm sure.
KLINE: ...after that long period of time. We had a very profitable furlough. We were home for...from August 1947, I mean we were home 'til 1947, April. Because we came home in December, cold weather, and...but glad to see everybody. And we...that was one full year, and then we went back in April 1947 and we started our second term. We had heard, though, we were not going back to the same language area. We were going to be moved to what we call the Swahili area. Now Swahili in Congo is different than Swahili in East Africa. We call it Kinggawana [?], they may call it the kitchen Swahili. The kind that's plain and simple, although it was used in...in a wonderful way, and even translated into the New Testament to be used. And so we heard we were moved from Aba, almost...almost 1,000 miles, to a place called Ruwenzori, and that is in the Kebu [?] Province. And also, it is in the foothills of the Ruwenzori snow-capped mountain range, which is well-known. And we found we were in a place way out at the end of the road, there was no road past us. We were at the foothills of a mountain. And we were assigned there, to that work, where they only had a nurse and they had a schoolteacher. But the schoolteacher left for furlough, so there were three of us. And then there was a Mother Stauffacher, who was for many years in Kenya who had a guest house.
ERICKSEN: Was that Florence Stauffacher?
KLINE: That's....her name was Florence Stauffacher. I'm sure. That was Claudon and Raymond Stauffacher's mother.
KLINE: And both of them served on the field. And she was there, and it was after her husband [John Stauffacher] had died . He had been there too, but he had died several years before that. And so we were replacing Mr. and Mrs. Harry Hurlburt, who were moved from Mwenda [?] to Bangala area. This was all new to us.
ERICKSEN: Did you have any...were you at all involved in the discussion about where you were going to be stationed, or did you just find out that you were going to be going to....?
KLINE: We generally hear when we're home, where we're going to be. But we...we could have the privilege of changing...
ERICKSEN: I see.
KLINE: ...or deciding differently if we want. But then we'd have to wait till our council met again.
KLINE: But generally I have always found that all my years on the field, that when the council says something, I always generally fit into the plan 'cause I feel the Lord has some purpose in it.
KLINE: Because they're all men that are looking to the Lord's will for the work of the Lord. And they don't just make it because of personalities or because of this or that. But generally because there is a need.
ERICKSEN: Sure. What a...before we talk about your work in the area, we've got the Stauffacher's papers at the archives. I wonder if you could tell me what was Mrs. Stauffacher like?
KLINE: Mother Stauffacher, I think she was a very....she was a person who just loved to talk about the old days, which was very interesting to me, of course. She was a person who welcomed guests very freely, and she...she always enjoyed having guests. I remember one thing that now that I use hearing aides, I can understand her position, because she always said when people visited her, they got to the place where they kept on talking too much and she didn't...wasn't interested, she could turn the hearing aide off. And I think that was one of the things, because at her age she...she would tire very easily. She did have good African help, though, with her in her work. And I would say she was a very pleasant person, as far as we could see. And as far as we knew, she was a very outgoing person, a person that wanted to do the best for the people who came to have a rest and a change. She was not a domineering person. She was not a...she was forceful in some ways, but whatever she used it for, she would...she would get her point across and she would be very helpful to a person or whatever she was talking about. I would say all her years there she did very, very well. And we enjoyed her very much...being with us.
ERICKSEN: Now, what kind of change in climate was there between Aba and, of course, Aungba and being down in the foot...mountain foothills?
KLINE: Well, I would say it was a very good climate. I would say that the climate there was more like the climate we had at Aungba. It was not the cold climate, as people would think. Because we're near the equator, we were near the border of Uganda. And so that way, I....it was not cold like some of the stations where we would be going....soon after that we moved on to other places that were colder. And we felt the differences in the climate (pardon me) when we traveled different places.
ERICKSEN: So you got yourself set up there. What...what did you do while you were...
KLINE: When we arrived there a Dr. [Carl F.] Becker, of course, who was a council member, who was a doctor at Oicha. And Ruwenzori is about forty-five miles from Oicha, where the hospital was located. And I remember him taking us there. He said that it needed somebody that could manage things because they found that before that the couple who were there did not see the need of keeping the place up. They would...did there...whatever gifts the Lord gave them, but one thing was needed because of so many guests coming there...with the roads need a lot of care. And the place needed a lot of care. And an interest in the situation of the...of the workman and the people in the area. And so he felt that that was one of the reasons that they wanted us to go, because we would fit more into the...the people that were coming, but also the people that were there. Because they needed somebody...it was a little more outgoing than this...the missionaries that were there were more, I would say, on the quiet type and not appear too much on...on the scenes, and so therefore, because of other missionaries and other people coming, they needed somebody that could fit into Mother Stauffacher's visiting and...and helping and whatever needs they would be for people. And that would go for the Africans, as well. And so when we were sent there, we were sent with the idea to help in the African church, and the...especially the outside area of the church, which covered a large area, right up to the border of Uganda. And Ruwenzori, as I said, was at the end of the road. At night, if people came, we could see people coming, we could see their headlights, way out, fifteen or twenty or thirty-five miles away coming over and coming toward. We had at the end of about six miles, we had a hotel there, where they had a lot of guests. And that was another thing, because a lot of times people would come there to visit the hotel, and they'd say, "Is there any missionary work here that we can look at?" And they used to send the people up or bring them up to see missionary...or mission work, what it would be like. So they needed somebody to kind of take care of that, as well.
ERICKSEN: Who was running the hotel?
KLINE: It was a Belgian man and his wife, who had the hotel. It was a beautiful place, because as I said, we were all at the foothills of the mountains and we all had the...the ice-cold water from the snow-capped mountains coming down. And he had a stream right down the back of his hotel, just like we had in back of our place. We had...we never had to boil our water at this place because we could get a place right that would come down from the mountains and we could collect it. And we had a place so high that nobody...no Africans had gardens or anything above to make it so that it would be polluted in any way. And so we also had this stream coming down in the back over the edge of the...the mountain. So there we also found that it was a place that was not occupied as far as making gardens to get vegetables. And my wife and myself were more on that line, too. That we could get the...the food that we needed, and also we were able to provide the missionaries and people in Oicha, where we would have to take patients. And they needed somebody that when our dispensary had people that needed surgery to get into the doctor's, then we'd always find that was a time to take vegetables in, as well as the patients and things like that. And so Ruwenzori was really an interesting work. We worked among the different tribes than we did before. We worked among the Wanandi people and the Babuba people. They were the two main tribes that were there. The Wanandi were in the Kebu [?] area all the way from Uganda border all the way up. And the Babuba were more of the forest people. We had a smattering, also of pygmies but not too many.
ERICKSEN: How did the Wanandi and Babuba get along?
KLINE: I would say that the Wanandi were very aggressive people. They were mountain people. They were people that raised a lot of food. They were hard workers. They were leaders. The Babuba were more of the forest people. And I wouldn't say they were lazy, but they were not aggressive. They were more, "whatever we get, we have. We don't have to work for it very hard." And I would say that the Wanandi showed what they could do, as we've seen in our area and also in the areas where they worked. Where the Babuba people in the forest were more lax and things like that.
ERICKSEN: Now if you have a church that has Wanandi and Babuba in it, does it follow that the Wanandi will be the church leaders?
KLINE: I would say that when we tried to work with both tribes, we would find that the Babuba would accept the Wanandi, as far as helping them. And the Wanandi did not mind doing it, and they did very well with them. But if...we also found that we wanted to train the Babuba people because they were the people that could reach the pygmies, better than the Wanandi could reach them.
ERICKSEN: I see.
KLINE: And so because they all belong to a forest people. In that way we had churches that may have been all Babuba and when we had any Bible studies, or when we sent anybody to school, we always found that it was very difficult to get a...a person from the forest tribe to go to a Bible school. But a Wanandi would always step out right away and be glad to go. So we would try to do what we could to get [unclear] leaders from them, but we didn't have as many as the Wanandi.
ERICKSON: Now how would you compare a Wanandi and a Babuba, two students. And would these traits follow through in the way that they would apply themselves and work in school or?
KLINE: Well, I think when they were [clears throat] even in the regular elementary school, the Wanandi would always come out top, on top. But there was a nucleus of Babuba people, especially some younger people, who were...were anxious to get ahead. And so you could see a difference. Also, there's always the marriage of differ...of tribes, the Wanandi did not really bother themselves. They would marry somebody from the Babuba tribe, which would help them very much. And the Babuba sometime would marry. They would even let them...their own daughters become wives of the Wanandi. So there was an interchange between them like that, which was helpful. But of course every tribe likes their own independence. And a lot of times the Babuba would want to be with the Babuba, and the Wanandi would want to be with their own people. And of course they...a lot of times a forest tribe, in the history of them may have been slaves more of the Wanandi, like the Lindoos [?] in Rethy were slaves of the Alur. And so you have that difference that comes up every once in a while, too.
ERICKSON: Now how did the...the Wanandi and the Babuba feel about the pygmies?
KLINE: Well the pygmies, they come and go. And that's what they did in our area. We never could pin them down. And later, when some of our missionaries worked among the pygmies, they were able to started having schools with them and chapels. But our, in just the area where we worked, when we were there, at the...when the...we had very little to do with the pygmies. If they did, they moved around so much that they probably, if they were interested in anything, they headed more toward Oicha, where they had a larger pygmy work.
ERICKSON: Now what was the religious background of these two tribes?
KLINE: I would say that they're all animists, most of them. I mean, they...they wouldn't have any connection with any other...other...they were idol worshipers. They were....of course, they all think of God as being good and the devil as their enemy. And so they have to appease the enemy all the time by sacrifice, by certain kind of houses built for the evil spirits, and provide food and provide this and provide that to keep fear away. And of course all the tribes, including the Wanandi and the Babuba have their witch doctors and the people like that, too. I mean, that's very general among many tribes, of having their own people like that. But when they come to know the Lord, we find that they...they don't really run off and...and see the witch doctor any more. And they don't have anything to do with him, and they're glad when there's dispensaries and people and places like that where they can go and get help. And they do come. But some people may go to the witch doctor first, when he can't do anything, then they would come to the dispensary. And of course all the schools and the dispensaries in our work will have the opportunity of presenting the gospel to people like that.
ERICKSON: How did the village witch doctors feel about...I guess their authority being undercut?
KLINE: Well, I have never really seen it that way. I mean, there maybe have been, which I...a lot of times people don't know who the witch doctors are. They don't come up and say, "I'm the witch doctor," you know. [laughs]
KLINE: I mean he's...he's sort of in...in his own area that people go. And of course they learn in time that the witch doctor probably can't do much good, but he's interested in getting their goats or their chicken or their food or whatever they can give the witch doctor, more than what they would receive. They find that out in time, too. So I would say that the witch doctor, most of the time, do not bother with the mission or the missionaries. They...they have their own people. And no matter how many come to us, they probably have far more that go to them, anyhow.
ERICKSON: Now what...when you were working among these two groups, what did...what'd your work consist of?
KLINE: When we went to Ruwenzori, we had work among the boys school. That's what we said before. We were not qualified teachers.
KLINE: But in those days, anybody fit into a school program. And we worked among the boys. There was a girls work...there was a girls worker, but then she went home. So my wife helped with the girls, she helped with the women. And I helped with the...with the church and at the boys school. And we had a nurse there who took care of the dispensary. And then like I said, Mother Stauffacher did...took care of the guests. And so we had a, quite an area to take care of, as far as the station and the schools, and of course the maintenance work that had to be done. Now living on the edge of a mountain, for instance, the area from our house to the nearest central church area that I would visit, I could leave 5:30 in the morning and cross at least forty-five rivers and streams, and arrive at my first village about 6:30 at night. And so you would follow-through with the areas.
ERICKSON: How were ...how were you traveling?
KLINE: By foot.
ERICKSON: By foot?
KLINE: By foot. Because most of the Ruwenzori range, too, was in the hands of the government. You were not allowed to cut trees or do things above a certain line of the mountains because they belong to the park area. We were near the park area, and we had to be careful of that. And so we had to do all the work before [unclear] in that area. And we also had an outreach from there to the Wanandi and the Babuba. After we would arrive in an area, in one day, which was from morning till night, we had our first opening in the work among the tribe called the Watalinga. They were a tribe that was out in the area near the Wanandi. And so we were able to reach that tribe as well, which we were very glad to do. And at the present time, when we started the work, we'd find an area there just almost identical with what the area where we lived. And so we started a sub-area there, and that has grown to a big...to be a big center at the present time. And they also have a road all the way through from Oicha area right into that place now. So that's...work grows like that through the years, of course.
ERICKSON: Now how old were your children, at this point?
KLINE: Our children...when we were at Ruwenzori, was our first time when our children went to school. And I remember at that time, I didn't even have a car. And I had an African who knew the Bangala language, who knew English, as well, and knew Swahili, as well. And our first trip with our son, going to Rethy Academy, was to go this forty-five miles by bicycle. And I carried the baggage for him, and the other African carried my son on his bicycle. And we started out early in the morning because we were to meet a truck coming from the Kebu [?] area of the Conservative Baptist Mission coming through there with a truck with their children. We were to meet them their, and then they would take them on up to...to the school.
ERICKSON: Now what was that like?
ERICKSON: Sending your son off to...
KLINE: Well, it was...it was not...
ERICKSON: Some people it doesn't bother, other people it does.
KLINE: When I...when I went that time, my first time, I went on the truck as well. The African came back to the station and I left my bicycle at Oicha because we had to stop at Oicha and pick up their children. So we went together. But that time, as I remember, the truck had trouble and didn't get through because there was a bridge out. And another truck came that was smaller and didn't have room, and they took me to Oicha. And there was a Mr. and Mrs. [James & Agnes] Bell who were located at Oicha, very godly people. In fact, Mrs. Bell was one of the....Mr. [Charles] Hurlbert, who was one of the founder's daughter. And they never had children. And so they said, "Let...let us take your children...let us take your son up to...to Rethy." And so the truck that was due didn't have room. We went on with Mr. Bell. And so I had the privilege, then, of going on to Rethy with Gary to put him in school the first time. But...if...children, I think they learn...they learn different in the field than they do at home because being alone on a station when they're growing up, even small children, they're glad to be a place where they see other children of the same type. And I remember he fit in very well. He wasn't...he wasn't worrying where I was going, he was...he was interested in all the people that he was seeing on this large school area.
KLINE: And he was not the kind that would cry and fuss like things like that. Of course we missed him going. We wondered how he would fit in and so forth. But...and in those days we didn't have radio communications or anything like that.
ERICKSON: Sure. Was it harder for you or your wife?
KLINE: I say, it was harder for my wife than it would be for me. But, of course, I was there with him. And it was almost the same when our daughter got ready to go, as well. But I think she was a little more...I think our daughter was a little more weepy about going, wondering how she would fit in because she was more of the quiet type. And so...they...they fit in in time. They do very well.
ERICKSON: Okay. Now who was...who was your field director when you were down in Mwende?
KLINE: Well Mr. [George] Van Dusen was still the field the director.
ERICKSON: Still the field director, okay. You were there until...
KLINE: Now wait...no, Mr. Van Dusen...let's see...Mr. Van Dusen, I think...Mr. Van Dusen was...had already gone when we were at Aba. Mr. John Buyse, B-U-Y-S-E, Rev. John Buyse became the director after Mr. Van Dusen.
ERICKSON: Okay. That's a piece of information we're missing. What's his name?
KLINE: That's...Paul Buyse, you interviewed, that's his uncle.
ERICKSON: Oh, okay.
KLINE: Mr. John Buyse, and he was one of the earlier missionaries. And he replaced Mr. Van Dusen when he wanted to go to leave the work of director and go out and work at Adja for a while. Then after that he went to California, and I don't think he came back after that, as I remember.
ERICKSON: What kind of a fellow was John Buyse?
KLINE: I...as far as myself personally, I found him a better director than Mr. Van Dusen because he was a...he was an older man, he was a very spiritual godly man, and when he and his wife traveled to visit us, anybody, I noticed a difference because he was the man that would come sit down and talk with you and then he would also ask you to arrange to talk with the elders in the...of the church. He would want to...they would want to visit the school, they would want to visit the girls compound, the boys compound. Whatever work was in the area, he was always...they were both always interested in. And they always spent time. And I was...I was really thrilled when I heard him say one time even with the leaders of the church at Aba, he would come and say, "Well, now, if you want me to let Mr. Kline go and you'd like to talk to me about anything you don't want him to hear, I'd be glad to talk with you." And I found that very interesting because I think the Africans maybe sometimes felt that maybe the other director may not have taken the time to think of something like that, or even come and see the church leaders. Where this man was interested in every phase of the work. Mr. Van Dusen, of course, was also a good director, but he was also the treasurer and he was more of a business man than he would have been....I think if he was...just been the field treasurer, and not the director, he probably would have done better. But he was always going to the missionaries all the time because he had so much to talk about, being both the director and the treasurer, that he would take up most of his time with the missionaries. And maybe the other...other works were neglected in such a way, which were also...should have been a part of his ministry, as well. But I never knew that because I was new...a newer person on the field.
ERICKSON: Now after Mr. Buyse would, let's say, meet with the elders, after you'd been excused, would he then sit down with you if there were things that they had conveyed to him that he felt needed to be changed or...?
KLINE: He...he would always come back...whether he would say everything, I don't know. But he would always give a report of what they would say. And if they were happy with the...with the missionaries that were there, or if he felt that we were neglecting them, or...or...we had different ideas, or something. But I...I never had any reverse actions, as I remember, from any...from any of our workers that were there or even after that. But he only served, I think, during the time Mr. Van Dusen had been home. Then I think Mr. Van Dusen came back again, later.
ERICKSON: Now you were...you were there until 1950?
KLINE: I was there 'til 1953.
KLINE: In the Ruwenzori area.
ERICKSON: Any...before we move on...any...any highlights that stand out from that time period that we haven't talked about?
KLINE: I would say that it was a difficult, for both of us, because we had known Bangala. And to study another language was difficult at the beginning. And both the nurse and Mother Stauffacher didn't know any Bangala, and so we couldn't get any help that way. And neither of them were good in Swahili because Mother Stauffacher dealt with people...most of her guests would speak in English. And of course she worked in her early years among the Masai. So she had no use...no work with the Swahili in her days, even, from Kenya.
ERICKSON: So how did you learn Swahili?
KLINE: Well, we had several Africans that knew some English and knew Bangala. Like this Andrew, that I said that went with me with my son.
KLINE: He spoke some English, a lot of Bangala because he was a graduate of the Bible school and the Bible school in that time was all taught in Bangala. And so he had two to three years of that. And so we were able to get through with that. Then we used the grammar that people had left for us to use, and so we would be able to get along like that.
ERICKSON: Who...who were the church leaders among the Africans there? That...
KLINE: Who were the church leaders?
ERICKSON: The Africans who...the pastors, the evangelists who you worked with.
KLINE: This...this Andrew that I was saying...
KLINE: ...he was a Wanandi, and he knew Bangala.
KLINE: And he knew Swahili, and he was a Bible School graduate, so he was made pastor for a while. And then after that we had...
ERICKSON: What was his last name?
KLINE: Andrew Kasali.
KLINE: And after that we had another man named Paul Kitambala. And he took over from him. He had been trained.... Then we had another man, Andrew Mokonjo, M-O-K-O-N-J-O, Mokonjo. Those were the outstanding men. They were gradually coming, as they have gone to Bible school and come back again. And Andrew...Andrew Mokonjo, as well, knew Bangala. Paul Kitambala had not finished because he had an infection in his leg. And he had to leave Bible school and come back. So he carried on in the church work. Then he had an amputation, which kind of kept him from getting out to where...into the district and helping the people and the churches. And then Andrew Mokonjo was a long time. Then we had another man, came later, by the name of Isaac. I forget his last name. He came along, and he became pastor.
ERICKSON: Now when you think of these four men, what were their strengths and weaknesses? How would you compare them?
KLINE: I would say, that Andrew, the one that went with me and my son, he was outstanding because he...he understood people more. And he was a Wanandi from...from down-country. He was not right from that area. He was where there was already a large work that was carried on by the Conservative Baptists, which was...before that was carried on by another missionary, who was from our mission, went to that area and started that mission. So I would say Andrew...both Andrews were outstanding, that we had. Paul Kitambala was a little weak on certain points. But both Andrews and Isaiah, which was Isaac, was also very good as a pastor.
ERICKSON: Now when you say about Paul Kitambala...weak in some points...what...
KLINE: Well, I think he...he was more...afraid to stand against anything that might be wrong. He would kind of cover-up for people and say, "Well, you know, this didn't really happen like this." Of course, Africans and their church leaders are very strong...we never as missionaries would judge a case of an African because we felt that the church understands their people more than we do. In fact, many times we think that they would judge more severely than we would, but in their own thinking, they know their people...
KLINE: ...and they know what is going on. And they like to see real conviction in the heart of a person who has done something. Like we would say they could be forgiven right away, but the church would say, "Well, we have to give you a time. You're not allowed to come to the Lord's table for a certain period of time until we see the Lord working in your heart." Where we would think maybe that was kind of strong, but they don't see it that way. And so there are things that they have, where Paul Kitambala was kind of weak on that. He was more...more maybe forgiving, but maybe over looking, because sometimes it'd turns out there'd be somebody in their clan or somebody in the part of their tribe, and maybe others are trying to get him to...to make it easy for that person. He was more on that type. But that's not true of all leaders, but there's some...there's some like that.
ERICKSON: Okay. What'd you do in 1953?
KLINE: In 1953 we came home on furlough.
ERICKSON: Huh. So this was your...
KLINE: No, no 1953...in 1953 we came home on furlough, and then we...we came back in 1954.
KLINE: In 1954 we were assigned, then, to Oicha because Mother Stauffacher, when we went home, her son Claudon Stauffacher and his wife, returned from their furlough. And instead of going back to Oicha where they were, they were assigned to Ruwenzori. Because they were originally were to [go to] Oicha so they could be close to their mother, in case there were any needs of that sort. So in 1954 to 1959, we came back to Oicha, I mean, we were there 'til 1957. And Oicha was a...was in the forest, where Ruwenzori is just on the outskirts of the forest, to the mountains. Oicha is right in the forest. I remember being in Oicha, where the only place you saw the sky was up because you couldn't see out. But through the years, the clearing that was done and the cutting of...of the forest and so forth, then you could see the mountains. In fact, the very house we lived in in Oicha, we had enough trees cut down that we could see the snow-capped Ruwenzori mountains in the distance. But those I said...that whole area...the Babuba tribe was the main people there because it was in the forest. The Wanandi were the minority in Oicha. It was just the reverse of Mwenda [?] Ruwenzori. I say Mwenda [?] Ruwenzori because it was called Ruwenzori, but then they changed the name to Mwenda [?]. And so they...they had their work. The Wanandi showed the people how they could cut the forest down and start gardens because for a long time food had to be brought into the forest because the Babuba were not people that would grow food. They may have had bananas, that's about all. And they brought in wild meat. And they had more pygmies, and then the pygmies, of course, would exchange the meat for other things, too, and things of that sort. But the Wanandi taught people. And in Oicha, Dr. Becker not only had a large hospital, but he had a large leprosy camp. And so they need a lot of food for people. And so the Wanandi were very good in that way, getting things started. So we were in Oicha from 1954, then, to 1957. And....
ERICKSON: Were you in boys work again...boys school?
KLINE: We were assigned there and it was a...they had a lot of staff there. Dr. and Mrs. Becker were doctors there, Jewel Olsen [?] was a nurse, Vera Thiessen was a nurse, Margaret Clapper worked among the pygmies., Evelyn Camp was [at] the boys school and...and... Edna Amstutz was a nurse, Mary Heyward [?] was a nurse, and then later Dr. and Mrs. Wilky [?] came as a doctor, and we had a Nina Smith who had work among girls and orphans. So it was a large place right in the middle of a forest. And the church work had started when Claudon [Stauffacher] was there, they had finished building a brand new brick church, which was there. And when Carmel went there, she worked among the women. She also had charge of a lot of the guests that would come, because we had a lot missionaries who would come there for medical reasons. And Mrs. Becker and my wife had a lot to do with all of that. And also, Dr. Becker found that my wife was very good with baby clinics, and so he would have her take care of the baby clinics in the bush area. I had charge of the...all the outstation work in the forest. And so when I would visit all the churches and schools, she would visit the baby clinics in the area, as well.
ERICKSON: Now what's a baby clinic?
KLINE: A baby clinic is where you give prenatal care to the mothers, and after-care for the babies when they're born and so you have a regulation of...of taking care of the mother, helping the mother [know] what to do for the child, and then when the baby's born, weighing the babies and things like that. Of course, all of these were used as opportunity to reach the women in the...in the bush area. And so my work mostly there was with the church, and also visiting in different places. And our biggest town, where the government offices were located, was about fifteen miles from us in a place called Beni, B-E-N-I. And in that area, the church had grown and I had a brick church built there. And then there was another church built in Mbau, M-B-A-U, that was a place where there were a lot of pygmies came. And there's a church there. And that's where the entrance of a new road was made. All the way in from Mbau, all the way to the Watalinga area, where we used to travel before from Ruwenzori there, now they were having a road. And in Oicha, it was a place also where they had lots of meetings, I mean they averaged any...everyday, just the people who came to the hospital alone would be 1,000 to 1,200 a day. And everyone had to get a...a special medical card. And when you got your medical card, everybody had to be at...at the chapel service first, then you got your card, and then you went to get the examinations and so forth and so on. So we had opportunities to speak at the chapels and the...for the medical.... We had Sunday meetings, we had Sunday school, we had lots of opportunities to preach and to teach and to reach the people there. It was in Oicha. When I was in Oicha, it is when Mr. Van Dusen had been brought to Dr. Becker because he was not well. And it was Mr. Van Dusen was at Oicha when I had been moved in 1957, then, I had been moved to Rethy, which is the mountain area, which became the headquarters of the mission after Aba. Aba was right after the war...the early days up until the war time. And then the headquarters were moved from Aba to Rethy. And Mr. Van Dusen also was moved from Aba to Rethy. And his home was at Rethy. And I was moved there because they had found out that the man who had all the bookshop work at Rethy was leaving on furlough and they needed somebody to take that over. And so I...we were asked to go...to be moved to Rethy from...that's when our daughter was going to go to school. And so they felt it was the time, the opportunity....our two children were at Rethy where the school was...that Carmel could go there and work in the dorm or work in the...help with the children, and I could work in the bookshop and take over from the other couple that was going home on furlough. And so in 1957 we were moved there. And I was only there a short time in the bookshop when Mr. Van Dusen became ill and he was taken to Oicha. And when he was taken to Oicha, word came that they wanted Mr. Kline to come immediately to Oicha because Mr. Van Dusen was not going to live long, and they had to think up who was going to be the field direct...field direct...field director and the field treasurer in a hurry. And so they had a man picked out to be the field treas...field director, but the field man that they chose said, "I know nothing about books." And he said, "I...I don't feel I could do both jobs." And so they tried to find out if they could get somebody to do the treasurer work and they had in mind a man named Robert Zimmerman who was also very good on books and all. But he worked in Zanziland [?] and he didn't want to leave his area to do that kind of work. And so then they looked for the next person. It was a women, by name of Mrs. King. Of course she had filled in one time.
ERICKSON: Yeah, you were saying that Mrs. King had filled in at one point.
KLINE: Mrs. King had filled in at one point when somebody was home on furlough. But she didn't want it as a full time job. So then they found out that I had gone to business college and they knew that I had gone to the bookshop, where I had to take care of everything in the bookshop, including accounts and everything. They wanted to know if I could do it. So they called for me to come down to Oicha. I had three days with Mr. Van Dusen before he died. In that condition I had to learn everything that I could learn from him [laughs] in three days of how he kept things. And he was not prepared in any way to say that he finalized things because he didn't know he was going to die. And he had been sick for a while. And so everything...like he said to me, he said, "Stanley, I'm leaving you a mess." And he said, "I hope you can straighten it all out." And so he...he told me a lot of things and then he asked me if I understood most of what he was trying to say. And the things that he showed me because he had his books and all with him. And I said to him, "Mr. Van Dusen, I think that I can take care of things pretty well." So he smiled and he said, "That's a good answer." He said, "I'm leaving it in your hands." [Erickson laughs] And it was the next day that he died. And so I...I....then of course the council assigned me to that work and then I was moved. I was already at Rethy and so they asked me....Mrs. Van Dusen was his second wife. When Mr. Van Dusen died, she also packed up and went home because both of her daughters were going to school in California. And so she packed up and left and we had been in the nurses house at Rethy because we came in a hurry, and then we moved into Mr. Van Dusen's house. He had a home and an office building on the side. And so then the council decided what the new field director, which then was Peter Brashler, what he would do and what I would do and so forth and so on. I don't remember if Peter Brashler took over right away then or not. I'm kind of lax on that part. But I think that after Mr. Van Dusen, Mr. Buyse may have filled in for a while, again. No, Paul Stough I think, might have been...
ERICKSON: Yep, that's...
KLINE: That would have been...
ERICKSON: ...'52 to '54.
KLINE: '52 to '54, but this would have been '57...'57 to '59.
ERICKSON: That was Carl...
KLINE: I had a year...
ERICKSON: That was...that was Carl Becker.
ERICKSON: Carl Becker? How's that sound?
KLINE: Yeah, Carl Becker was, but I didn't think it...it might have been at that time, too.
ERICKSON: The dates we have for him are '50...
KLINE: He died in 19...Mr., Mr. Van Dusen, I have that he died in 1958.
ERICKSON: That's right.
KLINE: And he was assigned...he was assigned to Rethy. I had been there, of course, for that...at the same time that I was assigned, Evelyn Camp was assigned to Blukwa. And we moved in 1957 and we lived in the nurses house, and then we moved into the Van Dusen house in 1958 and we left for furlough in 1959.
ERICKSON: So you didn't even really have to go through the evacuation, did you?
KLINE: I was...I was there when they had evacuations and when we left.
KLINE: That wasn't later.
ERICKSON: But the 19...wasn't...there was an evacuation in '60?
KLINE: No, I wasn't there when the time of the evacuations of independence.
ERICKSON: Right, okay.
KLINE: I was not there in that time because I was home. That was...that was in 1960.
KLINE: So we left for furlough in 1959. And a person by the name of Grace Barth, who was also the principle of the [Rethy?] Academy was assigned to be the treasurer. She was from Pennsylvania. She was a graduate of the University of Penn [Pennsylvania]. She also was a graduate of Pierce Business College and she was a teacher and she was a treasurer. Pretty smart. She's already gone. She's with the Lord now. But Grace Barth took over as being the field treasurer.
ERICKSON: So tell me, what was it like being field treasurer?
KLINE: I found, I liked the work. I always liked...when I went to business college...but I never had the opportunity. The reason I...I went to business college to take those courses was because when I worked in the medical publishing company they were looking for someone to put into their bookkeeping department. But, when I was supposed to be moved from the editorial department into the book keeping department another person was chosen for that and so then I stayed in the editorial department 'til I left to go to Africa. But I always liked the work I found it difficult at the beginning. I had a lot of sorting out to do especially the files because all those files took in everything in one file was...somethings referred to the field director's work and other things were there but they had them all in the same files because he was both...both positions. So the first job was to separate everything and then to carry on the work. But...
ERICKSON: So he....
KLINE: I think was the only treasurer, as I compared notes with Uganda and Kenya, (and never with Tanzania it was too far away) that we were the only field that took care of everybody's bills including milk bills and ordinary bills and...and insurance, everything. Because most missionaries were too far from a bank, they were too far from stores, they were too far from everything. [laughs] And so in our field we had no big place that everybody could go to...to do things. So I took care of accounts for all missionaries and took care of all the insurance, took care of all their transport, all the freight, everything that went along with that work at that time.
ERICKSON: So it sounds like Mr. Van Dusen was right when he told you it was a mess. [laughs]
KLINE: I don't know. [laughs] It was a mess all right. And of course his writing was different than my writing. You know, it's interesting because I remember going to the business college. The man that we had in my day at business college he said if you used a fountain pen, if he ever caught you with a fountain pen doing books he would break your fountain pen in half. [Ericksen laughs] 'Cause he only believed in the pen nib to do book keeping, 'cause he said you had to make figures that people could understand and that you can't get that with a fountain pen, he said. Well, when you're in Africa you can't run around, pick out the kind of things you like to use. And Mr. VanDusen used a variety of things and so it was not easy. [laughs] I would say that one of the hardest things I had was that he also was a business man and he had investments in cattle and he got his cattle mixed...money mixed up with the...with the...with the treasurer money. [laughs] And, of course, I don't know just what was involved but I found later that in the bank when I checked out the bank one time I had a difficulty. Because we used to have...if we had a...a certain large sum of money he would put it in the bank and get a slip for deposit because...to get interest on it. Which he would use the interest for the general field expense which mean extra expenses that the mission would have. And he had one that was the amount of money and he told me before he died. He said "You will find it in a drawer, and the envelope will say when the day it...it matures then you go and it will be credited to the...back to the account and then the interest you put in there." And so when the time came, I didn't see it on the bank statement and it was supposed to be there and so I opened the envelope and I looked at it and it said that it was due. And so I went down to find out about it. And I think, as I remember, Paul Stough was the field director at the time. Because I asked Paul Stough to check on it for me too because he lived in Bunya [?]. And so when he checked the bank told him that that deposit was already done. And I said, "Well, how could it be, because this slip is still here." And they said it was already and so they found out that this slip was a copy of the original. It was not two deposits it was one deposit and this was just a copy and so there was about ten thousand dollars that was floating around or shouldn't have been in there or counted for. And so anyhow, we found out it really belonged to Mr. Van Dusen, in some ways but didn't belong to Mr. Van Dusen because he owed it back to the church...back to the account again. And his wife thought that the money should have been hers and the mission thought the money should have been theirs. And it caused a little trouble for the beginning. And she said she had counted on that money for her children's education and so I felt terrible about it. But we had to...we checked on the bank again, we checked with accounts. Dr. Becker was a good friend of Mr. Van Dusen. We saw all the papers and there was nothing...that it was accountable on the money but on the books it showed that that was still on the cash yet to go back in later. So it had to go back in because we had to have that amount of money. And so I don't think Mr. Van Dusen...Mrs. Van Dusen liked me very much by finding something like that but it wasn't my...it wasn't my mistake at all. And that was one of the hard things of taking over from a man who dies suddenly like that.
ERICKSON: Now did you have to tell her directly or was she back in the States already?
KLINE: I had to write her because she was home. I had to write her and she finally came around to it. I think she understood it later what it was about. And she said that she didn't know exactly because she never...all she did to help her husband, she would type his statements and things like that for the missionaries. She didn't know the money matters at all. And also she realized that he did his personal money matters through the books as well as in the mission books. You see that was a bad thing to do too because he put all these things. 'Cause the cattle money and stuff would come through from other missionaries [Ericksen laughs] and it would go to his account and so forth and so on.
ERICKSON: Oh, gee [laughs]
KLINE: So that way she could understand to later that she had really no right to say that, you know, that it was her money because it was owed back to the...the mission. So...
ERICKSON: I guess...
KLINE: ...there were things like that.
ERICKSON: ...one, one can always hope.
KLINE: Yeah. So anyhow, I always enjoyed my work and I always made it a right to see that my statements were out monthly and not let it go over. And being in a busy place like Rethy where you get a lot of knocks on the door and interviews I learned to do a lot of my work early in the morning and late at night not, during the day. And I followed several policies...Mr. Van Dusen had told me several things to do. He warned me about the people that have debts and never pay money and things of that sort. And...and I found that if there...he said one thing, "If you're in an office and you're working on books and the accounts, and you have an interview don't take two people in at once. Let them stay outside until you finish with one because," he said, "you'll get all mixed up with something or you'll give somebody money. They come in a hurry, 'I want money' and you give it and then you forget to mark it down or something like that because you're interviewing somebody else for some matter," he said, "you'll find difficulty." And I found that very true one time. Because somebody needed money in a hurry and then I couldn't remember who I gave it too. [laughs] Until the person came back to me and told me that they never saw it on their statement. And I said, "Well, I had it in the books and I put it in the expense account waiting to see who would come back and tell me." Fortunately the person did. So there's a lot of things you learn in accounts. And I remember Grace Barth used to say, she said, "Stanley when you make a trial balance takes a long time. Even when you have four cents, you have to find it if you have a mistake." And she said, "I found myself when I found my four cents I stand up and sing the Hallelujah Chorus." [laughs] And that's very true. Ir's interesting, I found books interesting. Having everybody's accounts and making statements, making trial balances and see it come out like it should come out. And, of course, we were dealing in about four different currencies, so you're dealing [with] French money, we're dealing with United States money, we're dealing in...in Congo money, and in Uganda money. So you had accounts in all different currencies like that.
ERICKSON: Now, it sounds like the way you handled the books was a lot different than Mr. Van Dusen. Did the mission have any policies to set down as to how this was all supposed to be done?
KLINE: I don't think the mission had any policies like that because I think they just depended on [what] Mr. Van Dusen knew what he was doing. And so I followed a lot of his policies. And I followed his system of bookkeeping to...to a state of things. But I think I did it a little different than he did. And I...I got along very well with it and...and of course all the time, each time the council met, the treasurer had to give a report and so your reports all...but they would always say, "Oh, we accept the report and this and that." I mean after all a lot of missionaries don't understand money matters and they don't care if they understand money matters. [Ericksen laughs] So you have to be prepared for a lot of things like that.
ERICKSON: Now how long were you the treasurer?
KLINE: I was treasurer from 1957 'til...let's see here [pauses] 19 [pauses] I was treasurer there with a [pauses] with the times we had to leave the country and all...I was treasurer there 'til almost 1976. But I also worked at different places and most of the time at Rethy except for the evacuations and so forth.
ERICKSON: What kind of changes...that's quite a period of time, any changes you...
KLINE: [interrupts] Well, you see that covers my second term, that was from '54 to '59. And then I was back at Rethy again in 1961 but Grace Barth had been treasurer. So they assigned me after 15 years back to Aba again for awhile because that was after the independence and things of that sort. And a lot of people had left and they needed help. And so I was assigned. But then she also was the principal of the school but she had only a few because after the trouble in 1960 with independence and '61. She only had a small amount of children 'cause the missionaries were not all back after the trouble of evacuations.
KLINE: And I was home, when I came back to Aba. So she wrote me in a very short time and said, "I can not carry on both jobs. Will you come back to be treasurer? I'll recommend you to the council if you want to." And I said, "I'd be glad to." And so I was only a short time at Aba and then I came back to...to Rethy.
ERICKSON: What was the state of things when you got back in '61? After the...
ERICKSON: ...after the independence?
KLINE: After independence when I got back...we went home in 1959. I think our children at that time where ready to go to...stay home...the schools. And we were assigned, then, to go to Aba. After independence there were changes, but not drastic changes. I think that most people, when they evacuated, thought is was going to be bad, but it wasn't as bad as they...they thought it was going to be. I had found out from our own mission and the...the Unevangelized Fields Mission, maybe other missions, too, where the Africans said, "Why did you run away and leave us?" That was the impression they got. You see, we were being sort of being accused of leaving them. Where we were warned by some Africans, others felt we were running away. And that's what happened with the mission when the real rebellion came later, that most missionaries thought we shouldn't run away. And the UFM suffered more than we did because they...they listened to the Africans that time and they lost a lot of their people. Where we...our people pled with us to go. Now, maybe we knew more than they [UFM workers] did down [in] their area. But their children and their workers, we saw them....when we told them they should stay there, they went right back into that again, where they shouldn't have take their children from our school. You see, their children went to our school. But because of the trouble, you get that feeling that they want the parents and the children to be together. And we wanted that too, but we felt that they were going back into it because we had already heard on the radio in the communications that things were getting worse down [in] their area, than our area.
ERICKSON: No where were they located?
KLINE: They were located in the Stanleyville area, which became a very hard place. That's where a lot of them died there...whole families...tragic. But anyhow, that...that was not until 1964, of course. Now in independence we were home so then we came back and took over at Aba and we were there at Aba until the evacuation in 1964.
ERICKSON: You were in Aba that....I thought you were coming....
KLINE: I mean, I mean the...Rethy.
KLINE: We were at Aba only a short time. In 1961 in October, by...before a year was out in 1962, we went back to Rethy to take up the work of the field treasurer work. And we lived in the dorm, taking care of children, as well. My wife did a lot of that work at Rethy Academy.
ERICKSON: Now your...your children were back in the States, right?
KLINE: Our children were back in the States.
KLINE: And so we were there, then, at Rethy, at the field treasurer work and work with the Academy until the time of the rebellion. Now if you know about the history of it, when the Congo...the Congo was not ready, really, to turn it over to the people. And then it went from the Belgians into [Primere Patrice] Lumumba, and Lumumba into [President Joseph] Kasavuba, and Kasavuba into who, you know, then it split with Katango and it...it just kind of was fermenting all this trouble all the time. And of course we had communications during that time. And so we were there, and we had to flee, really flee from Rethy. We...we lost everything we had at Rethy at that time. Now I wouldn't say the people lost much in the...in the time they evacuated independence because it didn't turn out to be like they thought it was going to turn out, you see. But this time it was really hard. And we could even...we were...I was on the net [?] at Rethy when we heard the rebels in the office of single workers of the UFM on their radio, telling that we were going to get rid of these people and take over. And they were warning other people how they took this place. And that was the last words we heard of those missionaries, even. So we knew things were getting worse. And that would have been in...that was in 1964, of course. So then we were...we all had notice that we were to move out, but not all at once. We were to...to space our things. And you see, we had three exits. We had exits from Oicha way to Uganda across at a place called Kasindy [?]. We had a place near us called Mahagi and where Laura Bell Barr was. She had left before that because Aru and Arua are right across the border, so people could get out that way. And the only other exit was at Aba to get into Sudan, and so most people were...would be heading our way, because Mahagi was an area that...that had most people and so most people would be heading up toward our place. And so we spaced the people leaving at that time. That would have been in August in 1964 and we had to move to Uganda...Uganda at that time. And then later, as the people were too many, then we moved into our mission work in Kenya. Those that were ready for furlough went home. Those that could stay on, stayed on. And I think everybody, as far as I remember, with the exception of the Davises, they were the only people that got caught. Because they were new workers. And they came to Rethy and they were assigned to the new seminary down in Stanleyville and so they left to go down there. And when they went down there, they got...they got right into that. And you see, I...I don't know if that was the same time we were warning their people, but then they were listening to the people that were going back with them that belonged to that mission [UFM] so they felt that they would be safe.
END OF TAPE