Billy Graham Center

To find a current list of collections in the BGC Archives with information about Christianity in Africa, go to the Archives online database at: and search under the term "Orphans--":

[NOTE: The following essay was written by Amy Staufer, a Wheaton College Graduate School student, in the fall of 1997 as part of the requirements for her Cross-Cultural Research class.]


by Amy Staufer

Some of us can never forget an experience in an executive committee meeting of the Near East Relief when the skies were dark. The Smyrna Disaster had thrown a million of refugees out of Asia onto the shores of the Aegean Sea. Our relief workers had used reserve supplies to save life, and thousands of lives had been saved, but the treasury was empty; in fact, the balance sheets showed a deficit. There were those of the committee who felt that the American public was tired of giving and would not continue support. Some favored early, rapid though honorable liquidation of the orphanage of Near East Relief. A resolution was presented that called for the discontinuance within six months of the largest branch of our work involving the welfare and future of 10,000 children. . . . Mr. Dodge arose to speak . . .(1)

The archives of the Billy Graham Center (BGC) at Wheaton College in Wheaton, Illinois contain a wide variety of collections related to individual missionaries, mission organizations, and specific missions. The holdings are focused mainly on non-denominational Protestant work throughout the world, generally extending from the mid-1880's up until the 1980's. The policy of the Archives is to collect material documenting North American Protestant Evangelical efforts at spreading the gospel of Jesus Christ. This guide will highlight collections and materials that relate specifically to the topic of orphanages and mission work with orphans. Although many of the missionaries and mission organizations are from America, the actual orphan work covered in this guide will not include North American efforts.

The collections related to orphans contain a little something for everyone. Whether a researcher is investigating history, relations of missionaries to home boards, organizational structure, the orphans themselves, means of support, or other areas of interest, the information is available to be discovered. Holdings related to orphan work span from the early 1860's up until the 1970's. The bulk of the collections are from the 1930's to the 1950's, with some decades containing no information at all. The gaps in the holdings are richly compensated by several thorough and fascinating collections on individual missionaries. These personal collections offer inside glimpses of life as it really was, with prayer letters highlighting both the joys and struggles of overseas work with children. The most effective way to use the existing guides to find the orphan-related holdings would be to search for "orphans", "orphanages", "foundlings", and "orphan-asylums" in the computer guide listing. The microfiche also contain a listing of collections related to those topics. This paper will direct researchers to the most pertinent holdings for their area of interest specifically involving orphan work.

For additional information on archival holdings related to orphans or work with children, further inquiry can be made using several key words. "Children" and "children's work" turned up several possible collections, as did "children-missions". If a researcher desires to investigate not only orphanages but the schools and educational systems implemented around them, "children - education" also turns up further material. The archives have numerous collections related to education, Sunday School, and missionary schools. Other topics that may yield information related to orphanage work include "women in ministry", "single women - missions", and "adoption". For further information regarding the social ministry aspect of orphan work, the keywords "social welfare", "relief", "humanitarian", and "aid" point to organizations involved in those areas. For the more specific holdings on shelter aid for children, the terms "homeless children" and "institutional care" might prove useful. Some overlap with the aforementioned collections does exist, but these searches also highlight other mission organizations associated with social welfare and children worldwide. Narrowing those search words down to specific regions of the world might give clearer delineation of mission groups involved in those ministries. For example, searching "children - aid - China" would hopefully direct the researcher to the collections related to China Inland Mission.

In searching for material in the archives specifically related to orphans, one might expect, and rightly so, to find a great deal of personal stories, diaries or letters, and information on the children in the orphanages. The BGC Archives have excellent material related to individuals and some of their unique stories from the field. The richest gem is clearly Collection 363, the papers and interviews of Ruth Margaret Mellis. Her work was singularly devoted to assisting refugee orphans in Greece, and she continued work on their behalf even after being denied a visa to return to the country. This collection contains her personal letters to family and friends, prayer letters during her longest stay in Greece, official documents related to a bitter custody battle in the Greek courts, and papers used in locating the families of refugee orphans. The oral history interviews, conducted by archivist Robert Shuster in June of 1987 add detailed insights to the already rich collection of papers.

One might also assume that mission groups would have records related to the history of their orphanages, methods of operation, administration, and some mention of their philosophy in running the orphanage. Unfortunately, the material in the archives is rather limited regarding these areas. The information that can be gleaned from the materials provides a snapshot of a brief time period at each orphanage rather than explanations of when and why the home started, why it succeeded or failed, how long it existed, and how it was constructed physically. Another area that receives scant coverage in the holdings involves medical and educational work among the children at the orphanages. Often the school or hospital was located on the same mission compound as an orphanage, but almost no information exists regarding this cooperative ministry.

Largely due to the collecting policy of the BGC Archives, the actual holdings related to orphanages and orphan work remain somewhat limited. The non-denominational nature of the material excludes many well-known missionary orphanages around the world that are associated with specific church organizations. The Lillian Trasher Orphanage in Egypt is one example. Another factor that limits the scope of the archival material is the peripheral nature of the topic of orphans. The main emphasis in collecting materials for the BGC Archives is mission and evangelism, and orphanages are not a central feature of such work. However, many of the larger mission agencies have incorporated schools and orphanages into their world-wide operations, so documents related to the children are included. The Women's Union Missionary Society (Collection 379) includes several sections related to orphan work, dealing particularly with mission work in India beginning as early as 1863. Africa Inland Mission, International (Collection 81), Overseas Missionary Fellowship (Collection 215), and SEND, International (Collection 406) also provide material related to missionaries in their organizations who offered care and assistance to orphans. The larger umbrella organizations of the Billy Graham Evangelistic Association (Collection 214), Interdenominational Foreign Mission Association (Collection 352), and Evangelical Fellowship of Mission Agencies (Collection 165) offer names of various orphanages around the world, but little other information. These names and groups could serve as a springboard for further investigation, but do not provide material for further research within the BGC Archives.

The major areas of the world that are represented in the archival holdings on orphans are Asia and Africa. The majority of Asian materials relate to India and China, as evidenced in the material on the China Nazarene Orphanage in Collection 131, the two Free Church orphanages in China and the Children's Home in Hong Kong in Collection 266, the Gladys Aylward Children's Home in Taiwan (Collection 415), and the Japanese and Filipino orphanages pictured in SEND, International's holdings (Collection 406). The primary collections related to Indian orphanages are the Women's Union Missionary Society (Collection 379) and the ephemera of Zoe Anne Alford (Collection 177). The WUMS holdings contain extensive documentation of the financial records, home and field meetings minutes, and the addition of new missionaries to the several mission sites throughout India. Unfortunately, these letters and ledgers are over a century old and both the quality of the paper and the style of writing make deciphering the contents quite challenging. Collection 44 contains a draft of Mrs. Helen Margaret Jaderquist Tenney's book, No Higher Honor, in which she devotes a chapter to the WUMS orphanage and school in Kahpur, India.(2) As principal of the Dharangaon Baby Home, Orphanage, and Girls' School from 1948-1950, Zoe Anne Alford also acquired significant information regarding mission work in India.(3)

Areas of the world that receive little or no attention in the archival holdings include Latin America, Europe, and to some extent, Africa. The Evangelical Fellowship of Mission Agencies (EFMA) mentions "The Mission to Orphans, Inc", a ministry to orphans in Cuba and Haiti started in 1944, but supplies no other information.(4) The EFMA records also mention the "Latin American Orphanage" in Acapulco, Mexico regarding a funding controversy with "Children, Inc." and "Christian Children's Fund" but give no detailed information.(5) The Overseas Missionary Fellowship (OMF) holds the only reference to a specific European orphanage aside from Ruth Mellis' work in Greece. Box 4, Folder 14 of Collection 215 contains a typed update/prayer letter from a "Sister Annie" who worked at the Deaconess-House Friedenshort, Upper Silesia, Germany, in the early 1930's. (6)

The material related to Africa is slightly more thorough, but woefully inadequate both for the size of the continent and the number of missionary activities existing there. The holdings of AIM, Int'l. (Collection 81) mention orphanages at Oicha and Lukwa in the Belgian Congo, but little else. Surely the records of the organization contain more information, at least related to funding and staffing, but preliminary investigation turned up nothing. The Moody Church records in Collection 330 have some photographs of groups of orphans at a mission in Nigeria. Gladys Lyle Wright, a missionary with AIM, also refers to some orphan work at the Aba Station in the Belgian Congo during her interview with Wheaton student Sheryl O'Bryan.(7)

The types of materials in the collections related to orphan work cover a wide range. Most of the holdings contain paper materials such as prayer letters, personal correspondence, and mission brochures. The prayer letters generally provide the most detailed and interesting information regarding day-to-day happenings at the orphanages, although references to individuals not noted elsewhere can make some letters confusing. The personal correspondence also mentions relatives and family situations unknown to the reader. However, these letters provide a glimpse into the heart of the missionaries and their friends as they dialogue about their personal struggles, tests of faith, hope in God, and work with the children. The letters are scattered throughout the collections and are generally typed or neatly hand-written. Some of the older documents are difficult to read because of poor handwriting or a different type of script. The mission brochures and organizational reports are limited in number and usually more impersonal, but the Near East Relief brochure in Collection 363 offers a touching recollection of the history of the mission and the compassionate heart of its founder. A few collections also have some work by the children, including a few embroidered linen handicrafts made by orphan girls in the China Nazarene Orphanage in Chinkiang, China (Collection 131, Box 1, Folder 1). Another collection contains an essay written by a Greek orphan boy for the funeral of David Hoagland, a carpenter at the orphanage and a beloved friend of the children (Collection 363). The deep sorrow that the children felt at his passing is evident throughout the essay, and one can hardly read the words without grieving as well.

Another type of material in the archives that will tug at the heartstrings is the photographs of orphans around the world. Some of the most prolific collections of photos can be found in the records of Africa Inland Mission (Collection 81), Women's Union Missionary Society (Collection 379), Zoe Anne Alford (Collection 177), The Moody Church (Collection 330), Ruth Margaret Mellis (Collection 363), the Bovyers (Collection 131), and SEND, International (Collection 406). The actual pictures usually include groups of young children, toddlers to mid-teens, posing out in front of their school or home. The photos from Collection 379 show Zoe Anne Alford on the mission field and on furlough with her family and some American friends. The bulk of the pictures, however, relate to Indian marriages, particularly the weddings of orphans who lived at Alford's orphanage. While the written comments on the back contain mostly names, the photographs reveal many details of Indian wedding customs and attire. Ruth Margaret Mellis also donated some pictures of her children at the Syros Orphanage, the most intriguing of which shows the children seated in the formation of a verse from Corinthians (Collection 363).

The most extensive and informative photographs come from Collection 406, the records of SEND, Intl., and show orphanages in Japan and the Philippines. No written information pertaining to these orphanages is included in the paper holdings of the collection, but the pictures tell much of the story. They reveal a quaint garden square with laundry and bed linens swaying gently in the breeze at The Children's Gospel Home in Japan.(8) They tell of four young orphans delivered to the home on the back of a military Jeep.(9) They allow a glimpse of neatly dressed children gathered around a long dinner table, heads bowed silently in prayer.(10) They whisper of the beauty and tranquility of a home overlooking the placid Japanese waterfront.(11) They transmit the excitement of the young elementary students on their International Day celebration.(12) They reverberate with the pride of the boys in their woodshop and the girls in the sewing room, busy with their individual projects.(13) And finally, they testify to the enormity of the work, as well over a hundred grinning orphans and their home parents gather outside the Good Shepherd's Fold in the Philippines to commemorate a joint event with UNICEF.(14)

Oral history interviews with missionaries provide another significant type of material in the orphan holdings. These conversations are quite lively and give wonderful stories related to relief work with children. They also provide a feel for the individual missionary's personality and contribute to a sense of solidarity and empathy with the interviewee. The most extensive oral history interviews involve Ruth Margaret Mellis (Collection 363) and Bonnie Grace Stuckless, a friend of Gladys Aylward (Collection 415). Most of these oral history interviews are set up as a dialogue between a BGC archivist and the missionary, and the resulting tapes are delightful narratives that capture the history and stories of the individuals' lives that might otherwise be lost. In addition, these interviews help to fill in some of the gaps left by the incomplete paper documents and to bring a sense of unity to the life work of the missionaries.

While the audio visual material related to orphans is by no means extensive, the few pieces that do exist contain a wealth of information. The archives have one video specifically related to orphans, and that clip from Collection 214 includes an appeal from Bob Pierce at World Vision for Americans to adopt or support Korean orphans. The only film related to foreign orphan work comes from Collection 225. Film 50 details the fascinating story of a Korean woman named Soo Ok as she endures numerous hardships and eventually establishes an orphanage in Seoul.(15) The pictures are charming and the story inspiring, dulled only by the age and poor quality of the film itself. Collection 349, the ephemera of Clarence Wesley Jones, contains a few slides showing the World Vision Orphanage in Korea. Slide 8 shows a large group of boys and girls in front of several buildings, slide 89 shows the imposing brick building that was home to the orphans, and slide 90 pictures the orphans and missionaries outside the church.(16)

The holdings on orphanages contain several references to and correspondence with United States mission organizations. Some of the groups include China Inland Mission (Collections 131 and 215), Scandinavian Alliance Mission, which later became The Evangelical Alliance Mission - TEAM (Collection 177), African Inland Mission (Collections 81 and 284), Interdenominational Foreign Mission Association (Collection 352), and the United States Council of Overseas Missionary Fellowship (Collection 215). Several of the larger mission organizations have extensive notes on board meetings, committee decisions, and other administrative activity. Although these materials must certainly contain some references to the scattered orphanage involvement, searching for those brief mentions would require a significant investment of time. If researcher interests include the administrative side of the home mission, the information is certainly available, provided the researcher has the patience and willingness to comb through large quantities of reports. Some insight into matching dates for the orphanages and corresponding minutes from those countries and years would also be necessary. Because the Billy Graham Center Archives focus mainly on non-denominational archival material, relatively few denominations are dealt with in the holdings. Those groups that are mentioned are done so only in a passing comment, but pursuing possible holdings in the denominational archives may yield further information. Some of the denominations noted include Nazarene (Collection 131), Evangelical Free (Collection 266), Swedish Free (Collection 363), and German Lutheran (Collection 215).

Another topic of interest relates to means of support for mission orphanages. The information regarding formal channels of financial assistance such as organizational funding or church support can be found interspersed throughout prayer letters and records of particular mission groups. Gladys Lyle Wright even shares her disappointment over the fact that her home church gave absolutely no assistance to her as she set out for work in the Belgian Congo (Collection 284). One of the greatest controversies surrounding support and use of funds is located in the correspondence of Harriet Brittan with the Women's Union Missionary Society (Collection 379). Box 13, Folder 3 and Box 4, Folder 10 contain extensive original letters written by the American board members, Miss Brittan herself, and co-workers on the field as they attempted to account for missing funds. An added expense involved court battles over the ownership of land purchased, rented, and sold without the board's knowledge.(17) The conflict between Miss Brittan and the board over the amount and administration of funds eventually led to her return from the field and resignation from the Missionary Society.

Other forms of support mentioned in the collections include sponsorship of a child and government aid. The financial and material gifts of generous North American Christians are documented from the 1863 work in India all the way to the 1950 mission in Korea. Most of the collections contain lists of supporters who had sponsored a child or donated funds to the work. Zoe Anne Alford listed her donors as well as the name and age of the child they sponsored.(18) The governmental assistance is documented diligently as well, with Miss Harriet Brittan claiming most boldly in a letter to the home board that "without any aid from America we can support them [the orphans] entirely if you choose, thus using all the government gives us".(19) Other missionaries refer to government aid as a welcomed sign of support for their work, and Ruth Sundquist notes that the Social Welfare Department of the British Government donated land for their orphanage.(20)

Several folders contain prayer letters in which missionaries testify of God's provision at crucial junctures. Gladys Aylward ran her children's home on faith, speaking to various groups to glean support but relying most heavily on the Lord.(21) Ruth Sundquist's orphanage in Hong Kong was supported for twenty years by the listeners of Wilbur Nelson's radio program, and she never once had to fret about insufficient funds.(22) In a commemorative issue of the brochure for Near East Relief can be found the resolution of the crisis following the Smyrna Disaster . . .

Mr. Dodge arose to speak . . . . "I propose that this committee arise from this very helpful discussion of financial problems and join in singing 'Faith of our fathers, living still, in spite of dungeon, fire and sword'." And there in that downtown luncheon club, with other groups of businessmen in adjoining rooms, discussing railroad, steamship and industrial financing, Cleveland H. Dodge, with the combined fervor of a college cheer leader and of a church choir master, led the faltering executive committee in singing 'Faith of our Fathers.' The committee adjourned. The orphanages were not closed; money came; the work continued; the deficit was transformed into a surplus . . . . (23)

Support for the homes was also supplied by the children themselves as they engaged in work from simple gardening to elaborate embroidery and woodworking. Many of the orphanages utilized their land to grow vegetables or raise animals (Collections 165 and 406). Most homes sold goods that the children themselves had created. The boys at Ruth Sundquist's orphanage were involved in plastics and light industrial work and the girls did embroidery and assembled plastic flowers.(24) The children at the China Nazarene Orphanage also engaged in light industry and embroidery, buying the raw materials and selling the finished wares for a profit.(25) One rather non-traditional means of support involved Miss Harriet Brittan who would buy goods at auction and then turn around and sell them for a profit.(26)

The missionaries themselves were dynamic individuals whose personalities were as varied as their work on the field, but they were bound together by their common desire to share the good news of Jesus Christ in word and deed with needy children. Specific elements of distinction between the missionaries include gender and association with particular schools. Curiously enough, most of the workers are female, with David Hoaglund at the Syros Orphanage in Greece being the only mention of a single male missionary involved in children's ministry (Collection 363). Couples working with orphans were slightly more common, as seen in J. Wesley and Anna Ellmers Bovyer (Collection 131), Mr. and Mrs. F. Blaesner (Collection 131), Hermann and Auguste Becker (Collection 215), and David and Anna Steybe (Collection 215). On a related note, the work of furloughing couples was always covered by another couple, never by single missionaries. Another interesting differentiation of the missionaries is the direct connection with Wheaton College. Ruth Margaret Mellis (Collection 363), Zoe Anne Alford (Collection 177), and Gladys Lyle Wright (Collection 284) all attended Wheaton at some point in their lives. Further investigation may reveal other links to Wheaton College, but preliminary searches revealed at least those three women's association with the school.

The stories of the missionaries calls to the mission field and experiences once there are both fascinating and inspiring. The most complete stories surround Gladys Aylward (Collection 415), Miss Harriet Brittan (Collection 379), Ruth Margaret Mellis (Collection 363), Zoe Anne Alford (Collection 177), and Ruth Sundquist (Collection 266). Each story is unique, each call is clear and compelling, and each life testifies to the power and provision of God. The account of Gladys Aylward's arrival in China, contained on Side 2 of Tape 1 in Collection 415, certainly bears repeating. She was rejected by mission groups in England because of poor grades in theology class so she raised her own money and purchased a train ticket across Siberia. From there she boarded a Japanese ship to Hong Kong and eventually caught a ship to China. She settled into an inn located along a major trading route and shared the gospel with the travelers, rightfully supposing that any who converted would spread the good news far and wide. She soon received a government assignment as a foot inspector to insure that local women no longer practiced the outlawed tradition of foot-binding. Her involvement in orphan work began several years later when she passed a woman selling a child and decided to be a rescuer. From that point on she never looked back.(27)

Relatively little information exists pertaining to the orphanages themselves. A researcher inquiring into the physical design and structure of the home or compound would meet with very little success. Those references that can be found usually deal with some structural difficulty in need of repair, as in the case of the foundling home in India where the board designated money for emergency roof repairs.(28) Similarly, material specifically related to the daily routines at the orphanages is scant at best. The one exception to this fact can be found in Collection 177 in which Zoe Anne Alford has typed a two-page letter to American boys and girls detailing a day in the life of an Indian boy or girl(29) Information regarding the philosophical purposes and goals of the orphanages is also limited, but occasional references to meeting both spiritual and material needs can be found in Collections 165, 363, and 379. The spiritual work and resulting harvest receive considerable press in nearly all of the collections, with Collections 131, 215, 266, and 363 containing the most extensive accounts of conversion and discipleship.

The orphans themselves were unique in their ethnicity, personality, and need, but they were all victims of tragic circumstances surrounding them and dependent upon the generosity of others for survival. The Syros Orphanage in Greece cared for over 10,000 children at one time, with most of the children of Greek or Armenian origin and interestingly representing all seven of the churches in the book of Revelation - Smyrna, Pergamos, Thyatira, Sardis, Philadelphia, Ephesus, and Laodicea.(30) Ruth Sundquist's orphanage first received only refugee orphans, but then began to take in neglected children and children from homes broken by divorce, drugs, mental illness, and imprisonment.(31) The orphans ranged in age from 2 to 18 and were predominantly female because they might otherwise be sold.(32) Most of the orphans at the Aba Station were village babies whose mothers had died.(33) The girls at the Deaconess-House in Germany, many truly orphans, were actively involved in outreach to the poor in their area as a means of appreciating their own blessings and nurturing their tender hearts.(34) Other collections noting the age, gender, condition, and responsibilities of the orphans include 379, 177, 266, 363, 215, and 284.

A variety of factors brought periodic waves of needy children into the missionary orphanages. Many children were not technically orphans but had been separated from their parents by war, disaster, parental choice, or government orders. Some of the most heart-breaking situations occurred as a result of natural disasters. The Shantung Famine in 1929 and the Shensi Famine in 1933 brought waves of orphans and desperate families into the China Nazarene Orphanage.(35) The Smyrna Disaster sent over 1,000,000 refugees from Asia onto the shores of the Aegean Sea.(36) An explosion and fire in the Saar District in Germany left hundreds of families without home, shelter, and loved ones.(37) Scattered throughout the collections related to orphans are stories of individuals and groups that arrived at the orphanages, as well as the encouraging accounts of their growth and transformation within that supportive environment (Collections 131, 177, 215, 266, 363, 379, and 415).

Scattered throughout the collections are references to the difficulties inevitably bound to any venture as challenging as running a missionary orphanage. The degree and kind of adversity faced by the orphanages span a wide range, but no home was without its share of struggles. The China Nazarene Orphanage endured repercussions of the Sino-Japanese Conflict including the crash of Chinese plane within sight of the orphanage, the exodus of other Americans, the blockage of the river, and the cessation of commerce upon which the mission depended financially.(38) After being expelled from China by the communists, Ruth Sundquist managed to establish a home for the thousands of illiterate refugee children, many homeless because of massive fire in the squatter village.(39) The political turmoil in Greece made it difficult for Ruth Margaret Mellis to obtain a visa, and once she finally got into the country she endured repeated accusations of proselytizing, deliberately slow government assistance, and a lengthy court battle with the father of two of her refugee girls.(40) A prayer letter from Gladys Aylward in October of 1968 reports of incredible damage to the orphanage building due to typhoons.(41) And from newspaper articles, a movie, and the personal letters of Gladys herself, who can forget how she led 100 orphans over 1000 miles in six weeks to escape from the Japanese army?(42)

For additional information on Protestant orphanages and orphan work around the world, the repositories of other archives may prove helpful. From the Billy Graham Center Archives, searches can be made in several catalogs along the east wall, with denominational archives being the most likely source of information. Addresses of those archives are found in A Preliminary Guide to Church Records Repositories, compiled in 1969 by Aug. R. Suelflow for the Church Archives Committee of the Society of American Archivists. The Presbyterian Church, Congregational Church, United Methodist Church, and the Salvation Army all have significant histories of social ministry. The records of the Presbyterians are located at the Presbyterian Historical Society in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, while the main Congregational archives are found in the library of Harvard University under Archives of the American Board of Commissioners of Foreign Missions. The Salvation Army keeps records at the School for Officers' Training, Brengle Memorial Library, New York, New York, and the records of the Commission on Archives and History of the United Methodist Church are located in Madison, New Jersey. Other sources of information for church-affiliated orphanages include the archives of the Catholic church or the supplement to Church Archives in the United States and Canada: A Bibliography, compiled by Mabel E. Deutrich in Washington, DC in 1964.

Aside from denominational holdings, searches in non-church groups might also turn up some information related to orphanages. The main search vehicle at the BGC Archives is the National Union Catalog of Manuscript Collections published by the Library of Congress. Even though many of the entries relate to orphans and orphanages in America, a few scattered entries also describe the work of Americans in missions overseas. The Index volume of the NUCMC offers an easy-to-use listing of relevant materials and the archives in which they are held, as well as key words that might assist the researcher. For example, a search in the 1980-1983 Index referred to entry 1129 in the 1982 Catalog. This entry pertained to over one hundred items in the ephemera of the Daniel and Emily Oliver Orphanage in Syria, noting that the holdings are kept at the Haverford College Library, Quaker Collection, Pennsylvania. Other possible sources of information include the archives of the Young Women's Christian Association (YWCA), the records of UNICEF, the Social Welfare Archives in Minnesota, and the records of the World Health Organization (WHO) at the United Nations Archives. Locations and addresses for these and other archives can be found on the Internet as well as by researching available guidebooks.



1. Near East Relief booklet, n.d. (hereafter cited as Near East). Folder 2, Box 3, Collection 363, Papers of Ruth Margaret Mellis. Archives of the Billy Graham Center, Wheaton, Illinois.

2. Draft of No Higher Honor, Ch. 6, n.d. Folder 9, Box 2, Collection 44, Ephemera of Mrs.Helen Margaret Jaderquist Tenney. Archives of the Billy Graham Center, Wheaton, Illinois.

3. Zoe Anne Alford to her parents, January 1, 1948. Folder 7, Box 5, Collection 177, Ephemera of Zoe Anne Alford. Archives of the Billy Graham Center, Wheaton, Illinois.

4. Pamphlet for "The Mission to Orphans, Inc.", 1960. Folder 7, Box 73, Collection 165, Records of The Evangelical Fellowship of Mission Agencies. Archives of the Billy Graham Center, Wheaton, Illinois.

5. Letters from Mr. Max S. Walker to members of EFMA, n.d. Folder 24, Box 65, Collection 165, Records of The Evangelical Fellowship of Mission Agencies. Archives of the Billy Graham Center, Wheaton, Illinois.

6. Prayer letter from Sister Annie, February 1933 (hereafter cited as Annie letter). Folder 14, Box 4, Collection 215, Records of Overseas Missionary Fellowship. Archives of the Billy Graham Center, Wheaton, Illinois.

7. Interview of Gladys Lyle Wright by Sheryl O'Bryan, November 7 and 28, 1984 (hereafter cited as Wright tape). Tape T1, Collection 284, Ephemera of Gladys Lyle Wright. Archives of the Billy Graham Center, Wheaton, Illinois.

8. Miscellaneous photographs, n.d. "PHOTOS - JAPAN and PHILIPPINES" (hereafter cited as 406 Photos), Collection 406, Records of SEND, International. Archives of the Billy Graham Center, Wheaton, Illinois.

9. 406 Photos.

10. 406 Photos.

11. 406 Photos.

12. 406 Photos.

13. 406 Photos.

14. 406 Photos.

15. Soo Ok's Reward, Baptista Film Mission, 1950. Film F50, Collection 225, Records of Baptista Film Mission, 1942-1965. Archives of the Billy Graham Center, Wheaton, Illinois.

16. Slides S8, S89, S90, Collection 349, Ephemera of Clarence Wesley Jones. Archives of the Billy Graham Center, Wheaton, Illinois.

17. Miscellaneous correspondence to and from Miss Harriet Brittan, 1873-1878. Folder 3, Box 13 and Folder 10, Box 4, Collection 379, Records of Women's Union Missionary Society. Archives of the Billy Graham Center, Wheaton, Illinois.

18. Personal field notes of Zoe Anne Alford. Folder 7, Box 5, Collection 177. Ephemera of Zoe Anne Alford. Archives of the Billy Graham Center, Wheaton, Illinois.

19. Letter from Miss Harriet Brittan to American board, 1876. Folder 10, Box 4, Collection 379, Records of Women's Union Missionary Society. Archives of the Billy Graham Center, Wheaton, Illinois.

20. Interview of Ruth Sundquist by Robert Shuster, March 6, 1984 and May 22, 1984 (hereafter cited as Sundquist tape). Tape T2, Collection 266, Ephemera of Ruth Sundquist. Archives of the Billy Graham Center, Wheaton, Illinois.

21. Folder 2, Box 1, Collection 415, Ephemera of Bonita "Bonnie" Grace Stuckless. Archives of the Billy Graham Center, Wheaton, Illinois.

22. Sundquist tape.

23. Near East, p.6-7.

24. Sundquist tape.

25. Prayer letters from Anna Elmers Bovyer, 1938-1940 (hereafter cited as Bovyer letter). Folder 2, Box 1, Collection 131, Ephemera of J. Wesley and Anna Ellmers Bovyer. Archives of the Billy Graham Center, Wheaton, Illinois.

26. Letter to Miss Brittan from American board, 1877, p.11. Folder 3, Box 13, Collection 379. Records of the Women's Union Missionary Society. Archives of the Billy Graham Center, Wheaton, Illinois.

27. Wright tape.

28. India Field Council of the Women's Union Missionary Society, Minutes of the Meeting of February 14, 1877. Folder 2, Box 27, Collection 379, Records of the Women's Union Missionary Society. Archives of the Billy Graham Center, Wheaton, Illinois.

29. Prayer letter from Zoe Anne Alford, n.d. Folder 7, Box 5, Collection 177, Ephemera of Zoe Anne Alford. Archives of the Billy Graham Center, Wheaton, Illinois.

30. Near East.

31. Sundquist tape.

32. Sundquist tape.

33. Wright tape.

34. Annie letter, p. 8-9.

35. Bovyer letter.

36. Near East.

37. Annie letter.

38. Bovyer letter.

39. Sundquist tape.

40. Personal papers of Ruth Margaret Mellis. Folders 1,6,7, and 15, Box 1, Collection 363, Ephemera of Ruth Margaret Mellis. Archives of the Billy Graham Center, Wheaton, Illinois.

41. Prayer letter from Gladys Aylward, October 1968. Folder 2, Box 1, Collection 415, Ephemera of Bonita "Bonnie" Grace Stuckless. Archives of the Billy Graham Center, Wheaton, Illinois.

42. Scrapbook, "She led 100 orphans over the mountains", The Detroit News, February 1, 1970. Folder 2, Box 1, Collection 415, Ephemera of Bonita "Bonnie" Grace Stuckless. Archives of the Billy Graham Center, Wheaton, Illinois.

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