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Ephemera of "Auca" Incident - Collection 599


[Note: What follows is a description of the documents in this collection which are available for use at BGC Archives in Wheaton, Illinois, USA. The actual documents are not, in most cases, available online, only this description of them. Nor are they available for sale or rent.]

Table of Contents

Title Page and Restrictions

Brief Description of This Collection

Historical Background

An Essay on the Contents of the Collection (Scope and Content)

Other Information That Might Be Helpful To Anyone Using This Collection

Lists of Audio Tapes, Films, Film Strips, Oversize Materials, Phonograph Records, and Video Tapes in This Collection (Location Records)
    Audio Tapes
    Films
    Film Strips
    Oversize Materials
    Phonograph Records
    Video tapes
List of the Contents of Boxes of Paper Records in This Collection (Box List)




Collection 599

[May 31, 2013]

“Auca” Incident; 1956

Ephemera; 1956-1993, n.d.

1 Box (DC) Audio tapes, comic book, film, filmstrips, oversize materials, phonograph records, postage stamps, video tapes (0.55 cubic feet)



Brief Description: Materials documenting the martyrdom of five American missionaries in Ecuador by the Waorani Indians in 1956, the response by Protestant evangelical Christians in the United States, and later missionary work with the Indians by Rachel Saint and Elisabeth Elliot. Collection includes audio tapes, comic book, film, filmstrips, oversize materials, phonograph records, postage stamps, and video tape.



Restrictions: Video tape V1 may not be copied.





Historical Background


Chronology of Events

 

The Waorani Indians were a small, isolated stone age tribe living in the jungles of eastern Ecuador. Also known as “Aucas” (the Quechua word for “naked savages”). They were noted for their violence against their own people and outsiders who ventured into their territory

Late 1940s

Dayuma, a young Waorani Indian flees from her village after her father and relatives are speared by other Waoranis

1950s

Jim Elliot first hears of the Waorani Indians. He and Pete Fleming travel to Ecuador and are later joined by Ed McCully and Roger Youderian. They plan to reached to Waoranis with the Christian Gospel

September 1955

First sighting of a Waorani settlement by Nate Saint, a pilot with Mission Aviation Fellowship, from his airplane

January 2, 1956

The five missionaries (including Saint) set up camp on a sandy beach which they named, “Palm Beach,” on the Curaray River

January 6, 1956

Two Waorani women, Gimade (nicknamed “Delilah” by the missionaries) and Mintake and a young Waorani man, Nenkiwi (nicknamed “George”) visit with the missionaries at Palm Beach

January 8, 1956

Five missionaries speared and killed by six Waorani Indians

January 12-13, 1956

Missionaries bodies are discovered and buried the next day by the United States Air Force Air Rescue Service and a group of missionaries, guides, and soldiers.

January 1956

HCJB broadcasts the first reports of what becomes know as the “Auca Incident” to the world. The story received wide coverage in religious and secular press.

January 30, 1956

Life magazine article, “‘Go Ye and Preach the Gospel’ Five Do and Die” with extensive coverage of the death of the missionaries. The article includes several photos taken by Life photographer Cornell Capa.

October 1956

Wheaton College renames two student buildings James Edward Elliot Hall, and Nathanael Saint Hall

1956

Five Missionary Martyrs Fund established by the Evangelical Fellowship of Mission Agencies "to provide for the widows and fatherless children of the brave missionaries martyred in the jungles of Ecuador"

1957

Through Gates of Splendor by Elisabeth Elliot is published. Tells the story of the efforts of five missionaries to reach the Waorani Indians with the Christian gospel and the deaths

September-October 1958

Radio station HCJB in Quite, Ecuador broadcasts the Back Home Hour program about the initial contact and beginnings of the work with the Waorani Indians

September 1958

Dayuma returns to Waorani village with two Waorani Indian women, Nintoca and Mintamo, and later they come back to Arajuno, Ecuador with ten others. They report the Waorani are friendly and invite Rachel Saint and Betty Elliot to come and permanently live with them

October 1958

Rachel Saint and Betty Elliot with her daughter Valerie travel to the Waorani settlement on the Tiwaenu River and live there, Elliot for a few years and Saint for the rest of her life.

1958-

Conversion of several Waorani men (Dyuwi, Gikita, Kimo, Mincaye) who participated in the killing of the missionaries

1958

Operation Auca by Fay Smart

1959

Jungle Pilot: the Life and Witness of Nate Saint by RussellHitt

1960

The Dayuma Story by Ethel Wallis

1961

Elisabeth Elliot’s book The Savage is My Kinsman is published.

1963

The film I Saw Aucas Pray produced by Kent Films, Inc.

1966

Yaeti Kimo and Gikita Komi (Waorani Indians) gave their testimonies at the World Congress on Evangelism in Berlin

1970

Kathy and Steve Saint, children of Nate Saint, baptized by Dyuwi and Kimo in the Curaray River

1978

Journals of Jim Elliot edited by Elisabeth Elliot is published

1989

Shadow of the Almighty : the Life & Testament of Jim Elliot, by Elisabeth Elliot

1990

Unfolding Destinies: the Untold Story of Peter Fleming and the Auca Mission by Olive Fleming Liefeld

Nov. 11, 1994

Rachel Saint died in Quito, Ecuador and was buried in Toñampade, Ecuador where she had lived with the Waorani

1995-1996

Steve Saint and his family live with the Waoranis and help build an airport and a hospital

September 16, 1996

Steve Saint’s article, Did They Have to Die?, in Christianity Today magazine

ca. 1990s

Steve Saint established I-TEC (Indigenous People’s Technology & Educational Center) to assist the “hidden” church in its journey toward independence

2000

Steve Saint accompanies Waoranis Indiana Mincaye and Tementa who give their testimonies at the International Conference for Itinerant Evangelists (Amsterdam 2000)

2005

Steve Saints’s book End of the Spear is published and film by the same title is released





[Note: In the Scope & Content section, the notation “folder 2-5" means “Box 2, Folder 5"]


Scope and Content

The materials in this collection relate to the “Auca” Incident and were given to the Archives. Their arrangement was by the processing archivist. The documents relay the efforts to reach the Waorani Indians of Ecuador with the Christian gospel, the deaths of five American missionaries, response of American evangelicals, and continued ministry by Rachel Saint.


Series: I. Paper Records

Arrangement: Alphabetical by folder title

Date Range: 1956, 1959, n.d.

Volume: 0.325 cubic feet

Boxes: 1

Geographic coverage: Ecuador

Type of documents: Comic book, postage stamps, magazine and newspaper clippings, transcripts

Subjects: Ecuador, Elisabeth Elliot, Jim Elliot, Peter Fleming, Ed McCully, Nate Saint, Rachel Saint, Waorani Indians, Roger Youderian

Notes: Transcripts for two audio tapes (T1, T2) and filmstrips, Mid-Century Martyrs (FS1) and Unforgettable Friday (FS1), are in folder 1-4. These transcripts relate the story about the lives and martyrdom of the five missionaries. Folder 1-2 contains one envelope (no letter) addressed to Mr. H. Garfield of Birmingham, Michigan from E. McCully in Quito, Ecuador. It was postmarked March 28, no year visible. Oversize folder OS40 contains clippings about the death of the missionaries and the work of Rachel Saint and Elisabeth Elliot with the Aucas (including a complete copy of the January 30, 1956 issue of Life magaizne with Cornell Capa’s stories and photos.). A set of five mint Ecuador commemorative postage stamps in honor of the five missionaries are in folder 1-3. A Spire Christian Comics, Through Gates of Splendor, from Fleming H. Revell Company is based on Elisabeth Elliot’s book by the same name is in folder 1-1.

Exceptional items: A complete copy of the January 30, 1956 issue of Life magazine featuring the death of the missionaries is in OS40.



Series: II. Audio Visual Materials

Arrangement: Chronological by date

Date Range: 1956-1959, 1962, 1993

Volume: 0.1 cubic feet

Geographic coverage: Ecuador

Type of documents: Audio tapes, film, filmstrips, phonograph records, video tapes

Subjects: Ecuador, Jim and Elisabeth Elliot, Pete and Olive Fleming, Ed and Marilou McCully, Mission Aviation Fellowship, Nate and Marj Saint, Rachel Saint, Waorani Indians, Roger and Barbara Youderian

Notes: Filmstrips Mid-Century Martyrs (FS1) and Unforgettable Friday (FS2) have accompanying audio tapes (T1, T2) and transcripts (folder 1-4). Mid-Century Martyrs is about the lives and martyrdom of the five missionaries and Unforgettable Friday, narrated by Marj Saint, tells the story of Nate Saint and his family, missionary work with Mission Aviation Fellowship and involvement in Operation Auca. Filmstrip FS2 has a second section spliced onto it titled, World of Opportunity, which is produced by MAF and is a promotional piece about the work on MAF. There is no audio tape or transcript for this section.

Exceptional items: Audio tape T3 contains six episodes of the Back Home Hour programs broadcast on radio station HCJB. All but the first one is narrated by Marj Saint, widow of Nate Saint.

 

1.         Narration by unnamed individual. Dayuma travel to the Waorani settlement three weeks before along with two other Waoranis, Nintoca and Mintamo. Later the group returns to Arajuno with other Waoranis and report they were received in a friendly manner. They gave information about Nenkiwi “George,” who was killed by other Waoranis. September 29, 1958, about 4½ minutes

 

2.         The history of Operation “Auca” is given along with information on the current contact with the Waoranis. Return of Dayuma and others to Waoranis settlement. Nenkiwi’s wife mentioned that according to tribal custom, she strangled her child, and placed her in the grave with him. October 5, 1958, about 10 minutes.

 

3.         Betty Elliot and her daughter, Valerie, and Rachel Saint and Waoranis travel to the Waorani settlement. October 12, 1958, about 3 minutes.

 

4          Reports from both Elliot and Saint who just arrived at the Waorani village are read. October 19, 1958, about 2 ½ minutes.

 

5.        Saint reads portions of Elliot’s letter about life in Waorani land living conditions, foods, Valerie’s adaptation to village life and meeting the men who killed her father, describes death of missionaries, and death and burial of Nenkiwi. November 2, 1958, about 8 minutes.

 

6.        Marj Saint reads a report from Rachel Saint titled, “Night Life.” November 9, 1958, about 5 minutes.


Audio tape T4 is a HCJB Memorial radio program for Five Martyrs on the 3rd anniversary of their deaths. It was broadcast fromQuito, Ecuador on the Back Home Hour on radio station HCJB, January 11, 1959. The sound is scratchy and fades in and out. Program consists of musical numbers including solos by Joe Springer, missionary to Ecuador, and short messages by Fred and Clara Elliot (parents of Jim Elliot) and Betty Elliot.


The film (F1), I Saw Aucas Pray, was produced by Kent Films, Inc. and is narrated by Rachel Saint and her brother, Phil. It begins with a brief dramatization of radio reports about the missionaries deaths in Ecuador, and continues with scenes of Waorani village life after Rachel Saint and Betty Elliot arrived including construction of a home and an air strip, church worship service, Quito street scenes, arrival of Phil Saint who relates his feelings upon landing at the village, Waoranis gathering, hunting, and fishing, Bible translating by Rachel assisted by Dayuma, Waoranis being taught to read their own language, Phil Saint giving an evangelistic message by chalk drawing, baptism of nine Waoranis, arrival at Palm Beach were Gikita explains events of the day when the missionaries died, praying over the graves, individual and group shots of the five surviving Waoranis (Mintake, Mincaye, Dyuwi, Gikita, Kimo) who took part in the attack. Film ends with these encouraging words, how can I doubt the power of God to reach the down river group [Waoranis] when I saw Aucas pray on Palm Beach.

Video tape V1, Rachel Saint and the Aucas, is a Day of Discovery television program produced by Radio Bible Class. It gives the history of the missionaries attempts to reach the Waoranis and their martyrdom. Includes interview clips with Rachel Saint, and the Waoranis Gikita, Kimo, Dyuwi, Dayuma.

Video tape V2 was a film prodcued by Elisabeth Elliot immediately after she had ceased lving with the Waorani. It contains film footage shot by Nate Saint, herself and others in the Waroni village and other sites and photos taken by Life magazine photogrpaher Cornell Capa. The narration is by Elisabeth Elliot, with some comments by Capa. The film tells the story of Operation Auca and the work that she and Rachel Saint began among th Waorani, 1958-1961.

Video tape V2 was produced four decades later. It includes a summary of the sotry as told in V2 (with some of the same footage) and much new footage and inerviews with members of the tribe, taking th story of the work among the Waorani down to the 21th century. Steve Saint, son of Nate Saint, provides the narration.

The Auca Story phonograph records (P1-P3) present a documented retelling of the events from September 1955 to July 1962 in Ecuador. Includes voices of the five widows, three of their children (Valerie Elliot, Kathy and Steve Saint), Rachel Saint, Clarence Jones, Dr. V. Raymond Edman, Abe Van Der Puy, Dr. Wilfred Tidmarsh, and others.

The Auca Story (titles from record labels)

Side 1 - P1

            Five brave, dedicated men bridge the Stone-age gap

            A yellow plane on Palm Beach

            Crackle of jungle Radio

            A house in the trees

            “We Rest on Thee”

Side 2 - P2

            A Squirming Paradise

            Red carpet for an Auca

            “So long, Girls!”

            The Terrible silence

            The Stripped plane

            News like lightning

            Air and ground support of two nations

Side 3 - P3

            Plodding Search Party

            “Four bodies found!”

            A Jungle grave

            The raging elements

            Heartrending news

            Radiant faith

            Memorial services

            Hall of Fame

            Widows’ graveside service

Side 4 - P3

            Word from a wee Saint

            Glitter of a medal

            “Through Gates of Splendor”

            Sounds of Auca voices

            An Auca at Wheaton College

Side 5 - P2

            Back to the Aucas

            Valiant Valerie

            “Jesus Loves Me”

            Sizzling monkey meat

            “Is That my daddy?”

            Rachel Saint among the Aucas

            Dayuma preaches

            Savage killers can love

Side 6 - P1

            From Savagery to Saviour

            Kathy Saint

            Tribal legends

            Conversion of the killers

            Nine in the rippling waters

            Present word of the widows


Several other collections in the BGC Archives have information about the Auca incident including Collection 113 - Records of BGEA: Films and Video Tapes, Collection 165 - Records of the Evangelical Fellowship of Mission Agencies (EFMA), Collection 136 - Records of Mission Aviation Fellowship (MAF), and Collection 277 - Papers of Philip James Elliot. After the deaths of the missionaries EFMA set up the Five Missionary Martyrs Fund to “provide for the widows and fatherless children.” A decade of Nate Saint’s correspondence is in the MAF collection.



Provenance


The materials in this collection were given to the Archives of the Billy Graham Center by Ruth Mellis in October 1981, Olga Kruck in March 1988, Radio Bible Class in February 1993, Robert Johnson in May 1993, Harold Cook, Jr. in March 1995, David Kucharsky in December 1998, Robert Carlson in May 2002, and James Mann, Jr. in December 2002 and Kathryn Deering in September 2012


Accession: 81-118, 88-21, 93-25, 93-73, 95-8, 95-52, 98-81, 02-39.
February 20, 2008
Wayne D. Weber

Accession: 12-27
May 31, 2013
Bob Shuster




List of Individuals Connected with “Auca Incident”

Dayuma

A Waorani who became a Christian under the ministry of Rachel Saint

Dyuwi Tani

One of the six Waorani men who took part in the attack at Palm Beach. He became a Christian and elder in the Waorani church. He and Kimo baptized Kathy and Steve Saint, children of Nate Saint, in the Curaray River in 1970

Elliot, Elisabeth

Wife of Jim Elliot and missionary to the Waoranis

Elliot, Philip James “Jim”

Graduated from Wheaton College in 1949, Plymouth Brethren missionary with Christian Missions in Many Lands, one of the five killed in Ecuador

Fleming, Peter “Pete”

Graduated from the University of Washington, Plymouth Brethren missionary with Christian Missions in Many Lands, one of the five killed in Ecuador

Gikita Wawae

Leader of the attack at Palm Beach.

Gimade

Sister of Dayuma. Visited the missionaries on Palm Beach and was nicknamed “Delilah” by the missionaries

Jones, Clarence

Co-founder of radio station HCJB, which did the first radio broadcasts about the men’s death

Kimo Yeti

One of the six Waorani men who took part in the attack at Palm Beach. Rachel Saint took him to Berlin, German for a Billy Graham evangelistic conference . He and Dyuwi baptized Kathy and Steve Saint, children of Nate Saint, in the Curaray River in 1970

Komi

Dayuma’s husband. Rachel Saint took him to Berlin, German, in 1966 for a Billy Graham evangelistic conference

McCully, Jr., T. Edward “Ed”

Wheaton College 1949 graduate, Plymouth Brethren missionary with Christian Missions in Many Lands, one of the five killed in Ecuador

Mincaye Enquedi

One of the six Waorani men who took part in the attack at Palm Beach. He later became a Christian, an elder in the church, and gave his testimony at Amsterdam 2000

Mintake

One of three Waorani who visited the missionaries on Palm Beach

Nenkiwi

Nicknamed “George” was one of the three visitors with the missionaries on Palm Beach

Marj Saint

Widow of Nate Saint who later married Abe Van Der Puy

Saint, Nathanael “Nate”

Wheaton College 1950 graduate, missionary pilot with Mission Aviation Fellowship, one of the five killed in Ecuador

Saint, Rachel

Sister of Nate Saint and missionary with Wycliffe Bible Translators to the Waoranis

Tementa

Son of Nenkiwi and elder in the Waorani church who gave his testimony at Amsterdam 2000

Tidmarsh, Dr. Wilfred

Veteran English missionary to Ecuador, one of the first to enter Waorani territory and first to compile an Waorani word list

Van Der Puy, Abe

Missionary to Ecuador and HCJB field director, married Marj Saint, widow of Nate

Youderian, Roger

Missionary with Gospel Missionary Union, one of the five killed in Ecuador





LOCATION RECORD

Accession: 02-39

Type of Material: Audio Tapes

The following items are located in the AUDIO TAPE file.


Item# - Reel or cassette, speed, length, number of sides, contents (title of session, participants) according to the program, date.


 #

R/C

speed

length

Sides

Contents

Dates

T1

 c

 --

30 min

 1

Mid-Century Martyrs is about the lives and martyrdom of the five missionaries. There is a filmstrip (FS1) and a transcript (folder 1-4) that accompanies the audio tape.

1956

T2

 c

 --

18 min

 2

Unforgettable Friday tells the story of Nate Saint and his family, missionary work with Mission Aviation Fellowship and involvement in Operation Auca. There is a filmstrip (FS2) and a transcript (folder 1-4) that accompanies the audio tape. Both sides of the tape are identical.

ca. 1956

T3

R

3-3/4

33 min

 2

Back Home Hour news reports broadcast on radio station HCJB about Operation Auca.

Side 1 Parts 1-3

Side 2 Parts 4-6

Sept.-Nov. 1958

T4

R

7-1/2

26 min

 1

HCJB Memorial Broadcast on the Back Home Hour program for the five missionaries killed in Ecuador on the 3rd anniversary of their deaths

Jan. 11, 1959



*****

LOCATION RECORD

Type of material: Films

Accession: 95-8

The Archives has one copy of each film, in 16mm format, unless otherwise noted. The following items are in the FILM FILE:


Film #

b&w / c

Length in minutes

Title

Description

Date


F1

b&w

45 min

I Saw Aucas Pray

Missionary work among the Waorani after the deaths of the five missionaries. Produced by Kent Film, Inc., Dayton, Ohio and narrated by Rachel and Phil Saint

1963



*****

LOCATION RECORD

Accession: 81-118

Type of Material: Filmstrips

The following items are located in the FILMSTRIP FILE. Request by the FS number at the beginning of each entry below.


Filmstrip #

Tape #

Tape Type

Title

Description 

Date



FS 1

T1

35mm

Mid-Century Martyrs

Story about the lives and martyrdom of the five missionaries. Includes audio tape (T1) and transcript (folder 1-4)

1956

FS 2

T2

35mm

Unforgettable Friday and World of Opportunity

Two filmstrips spliced together. Unforgettable Friday, narrated by Marj Saint, tells the story Nate Saint and his family, his missionary work with MAF and involvement with Operation Auca. The color has faded on the filmstrip. Includes audio tape (T2) and transcript (folder 1-4). World of Opportunity, produced by Mission Aviation Fellowship, is a promotional filmstrip about the work of MAF. There is no transcript or audio tape with this filmstrip

ca 1956



*****

LOCATION RECORD

Accession: 88-21

Type of material: Oversize Materials

The following items are in the OVERSIZE FILE. Request by collection number and folder location (in parentheses).



CLIPPINGS (OS 40).

Life magazine, January 30, 1956, contains the story of the five missionaries martyred in Ecuador, “‘Go Ye and Preach the Gospel’ Five Do and Die.”


Sunday Midwest Magazine of the Chicago Sun-Times, contains Part 1 of 4 of the “Faith Beyond Fear” series about how a missionary wife (Elisabeth Elliot) returned to forgive her husband’s jungle slayers. March 8, 1959.


Sunday Midwest Magazine of the Chicago Sun-Times, contains Part 2 of 4 of the “Faith Beyond Fear” series about the five missionaries and their meeting with the Aucas on Palm Beach. March 15, 1959.


Two newspaper clippings about the martyred missionaries:

Chicago Daily News, “How Missionaries Died as Martyrs,” includes individual photos of the missionaries, January 21, 1956.

 

Chicago American, “Died Martyr, Says Dad of Missionary,” January 21, 1956.



*****

LOCATION RECORD

Accession: 95-52

Type of material: Phonograph Records

The following items are located in the PHONOGRAPH RECORD FILE:


Item#, size, speed, length per side, contents , date.


 #

Size

Speed

Min. per side

Record Company

Contents

Date

P1

12in

33-1/3

27 & 27

Diadem

Side 1: The Auca Story, Side One, DLP 154-3, NO8P-1500

1962

Side 2: The Auca Story, Side Six, DLP 154-3, NO8P-1477

P2

12in

33-1/3

27&28

Diadem

Side 1: The Auca Story, Side Two, DLP 154-3, NO8P-1473

1962

Side 2: The Auca Story, Side Five, DLP 154-3, NO8P-1476

P3

12in

33-1/3

27 & 27

Diadem

Side 1: The Auca Story, Side Three, DLP 154-3, NO8P-1474

1962

Side 2: The Auca Story, Side Four, DLP 154-3, NO8P-1475



*****

LOCATION RECORD

Type of material: Videos

Accession: 93-25

The Archives has one copy of each video, unless otherwise noted. The following items are in the Video FILE:


Video

#

Type

b&w / c

Length in minutes

Title

Description

Date



 V1

 vhs

 c

 30

Day of Discovery Rachel Saint and the Aucas

Radio Bible Class television program includes interview clips with Rachel Saint and Waoranis Kimo, Dyuwi, and Dayuma

Jan. 24, 1993

V2 vhs c 36 Through Gates of Splendor Produced by the Auca Missionary Foundation, distributed by Sacred Cinema. This copy is a 1978 reissue of the film by Gospel Communications. 1961
V3 vhs c 96 Beyond the Gates of Splendor Produced by Bearing Fruit Communications 2005




BOX LIST

Box

Folder

First Folder/Last Folder

Dates

OS 40

 

Auca Incident Clippings

1956, 1959

1

1

Comic book: Through Gates of Splendor

1974

1

2

Envelope: Ed McCully

n.d.

1

3

Postage Stamps: Ecuador Commemorative

ca. 1956

1

4

Transcripts

1956




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