Billy Graham Center
Archives

Ephemera of the Wheaton College Revivals -
Collection 514

[Note: What follows is a description of the documents in this collection which are available for use at BGC Archives in Wheaton, Illinois, USA. The actual documents are not, in most cases, available online, only this description of them. Nor are they available for sale or rent. Some or all of this collection can be borrowed through interlibrary loan. ]

Table of Contents

Brief Description of This Collection

Title Page and Restrictions

Historical Background

An Essay on the Contents of the Collection (Scope and Content)

    Paper Records
    Audio and Video Tapes
Other Information Which Will Be Helpful to the User of This Guide
    Chronology of Selected Events Referred to in the Documents of this Collection
    Chronology of the Taping of the 1995 Interviews in This Collection


Lists of Audio Tapes and Video Tapes in This Collection (Location Records)
    Audio Tapes
    Video Tapes

List of the Contents of Boxes of Paper Records in This Collection (Container List)

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Click here to visit a web page about the 1995 Wheaton revival

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T4 Transcript

T5 Transcript

T21 Transcript

T22 Transcript

Excerpt from T26

Click to listen to an excerpt from this interview. Click to visit the exhibit Web page featuring this and other excerpts with transcripts, visuals and audio links.

T58 Transcript

T59 Transcript



Brief Description
Oral history interviews, questionnaires, reports, and other materials relating to spontaneous revivals on Wheaton College campus in the twentieth century. There are restrictions on some material in this collection. For more information, please see guide.
Vol: 1 Box (DC), Audio Tapes, Video Tapes


Collection 514
[October 11, 2004]
Wheaton College Revivals
Ephemera; 1950; 1970; 1994-1995, 1997; n.d.
1 Box (DC; .2 cubic feet), Audio Tapes, Video Tapes

Restrictions:

Videos V1 through V5 may only be viewed in the Archives Reading Room, through copies made from the master videos. Any such copies made before May 17, 2070 will be edited to remove portions of the soundtrack and/or video track which contains individual confessions.

COMPLETE TRANSCRIPTS TO INTERVIEW TAPES T4, T5, T9, T10, T11, T21, T22, T58 AND T59 IN THIS COLLECTION ARE AVAILABLE




Historical Background

The Wheaton College community, particularly the student body, has a number of times in the twentieth century experienced brief, intense periods of spiritual renewal, called "revivals." A large percentage, if not most, of the student body and at least some of the faculty and staff are typically involved in the experience, which usually includes confession of sins, testimonies, dedication to Christian service, and, above all strong manifestations of the Holy Spirit's presence and power. The most widespread such experiences occurred in 1936, 1943, 1950, and 1970.

In the fall of 1994, the staff of the Billy Graham Center Archives developed with Wheaton College professor Timothy Beougher a project to increase the existing documentation of these events. The staff prepared a series of questionnaires to be sent to selected alumni who had been present at the various revivals. One question asked was if the alumnus would be willing to be interviewed about his or her experience. Beougher, in the spring of 1995, was teaching a class on the history and theology of revivals. Alumni who indicated they would be willing to be interviewed were contacted by one of Beougher's students who, using questions prepared by the Archives staff, taped an interview with them. The students wrote papers on their experiences and the tapes and copies of the papers became part of the BGC Archives. The project went as planned and by the end of February, all the interviews had been completed.

In March, the campus again experienced revival. Two students (Brandi Maguire and James Hahn) from Howard Payne University in Texas had been invited to speak about a revival on their campus at the Sunday evening World Christian Fellowship (WCF) worship service on Sunday, March 19, 1995. They did so and their testimonies were immediately followed by confessions of sin from the individual Wheaton students. Soon, as each individual confessed, large prayer groups formed around them. The service, held in the College's Pierce Chapel continued until 6am on Monday morning. Leadership for the service, formal and informal, was provided by WCF chairman, Office of Christian Outreach (OCO) assistant director Kevin Engel, Timothy Beougher, professor Lyle Dorsett and his wife Mary, college chaplain Stephen Kellough, college librarian John Fawcett and dean of student programs Ruth Bamford. They continued to provide informal leadership throughout the week. The meeting then adjourned until that evening, when after a brief introduction and period of singing, confessions again began and continued the until the next morning. Tuesday and Wednesday evenings saw the same thing happen. The services moving from Pierce Chapel to the sanctuary of nearby College Church on Tuesday night. Thursday night signaled the end of the event, with a worship service of praise and testimony attended by a large portion (perhaps a majority) of the student body. Toward the end of this service, there was a prayer of dedication for hundreds of students who wished to dedicate their lives to full-time Christian service.

After the revival ended on March 23, students started going out almost immediately in response to invitations from churches and other colleges to report on what happened at Wheaton. Often these visits were the spark for further revivals, as the visit of Howard Payne's students had been the spark for Wheaton. The year 1995 saw revivals on many college campuses around the country The history of the Wheaton 1995 revival and its aftermath is described in detail in Accounts of a Campus Revival, edited by Timothy Beougher and Lyle Dorsett.

As soon as Paul Ericksen of the BGC Archives staff learned about the revival on March 21, he began interviewing people involved. (Robert Shuster, director of the Archives, was out of town until the 23rd.) Several interviews were conducted during the revival and many more afterwards. Later, [the WCF president] taped interviews with several people who had carried reports of the revival to other campuses and Christian communities. These interviews were used as background for a chapter [the WCF president] wrote for the above mentioned Accounts of a Campus Revival and [the WCF president] turned them over to the Archives when he was done with them. Some videotapes made during the revival services by Patrick Bell were also given to the Archives.




Scope and Content


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Series: Paper records
Arrangement: Alphabetical by title
Date range: 1950, 1994-1995
Volume: .2 cubic feet
Boxes: 1
Geographic coverage: Primarily Wheaton College campus, but also material on other parts of North America, particularly Christian college campuses affected by the 1995 revivals
Type of documents: Questionnaires, hard copies of e-mail messages, clippings, forms, reports
Correspondents: Stephen Kellough, Kevin Engel, [the WCF president] and former Wheaton students
Subjects: Revivals at Wheaton College (1936, 1943, 1950,1970, 1995), Trinity International University, Asbury College, Multnomah, several other Christian colleges
Notes: For the each of the pre-1995 revivals, the archives staff obtained at least one questionnaire from a participant in which he or she answered questions about the experience and its impact. These are all in folder 1-10. In addition, folder 1-1 contains a report on the 1936 revival (written long after the fact). Folder 1-2 contains a report of the 1950 revival in a contemporary letter by Gene DeVries (later Gene Ebersole), class of '52, to her parents telling them about the revival of 1950. She describes the event itself and people's reaction to it. Folder 1-3 has an extensive memoir on the same revival prepared in 1995 by a different participant, before the beginning of the 1995 revival. Tape T1, described below, is an oral report on the 1970 revival made within a week of the event. An edited 1995 e-mail message by a participant in the 1970 revival describing the event can be found in folder 1-8

Folder 1-8 also includes materials relating to the interviews done by students in Beougher's class with participants from earlier revivals. For each interviewee there is a brief biography of the interviewee and the student interviewer's summary of the contents of the interview. Folder 1-9 contains materials prepared by the Archives' staff in preparation for this project of Beougher's class: lists of possible interviewees, correspondence with them about being interviewed, and questions to ask in the interview. This question list was also used by the Archives staff when they did interviews with the participants in the 1995 revival.

Concerning the 1995 revival: For a time, there was a lively debate on a Wheaton College computer network (called Coffee Talk) about the meetings. Copies of these messages, along with e-mail reports of other claimed revivals going on at the same time are in folder 1-4. Also in this file are e-mail messages about revivals at Taylor University, Columbia University of New York, and a Campus Crusade staff meeting; other revivals going on around the world, Richard's Riss' report on the revivals of 1993-95, notes on the so-called Laughing Revival or Toronto Blessing.

A few days after the revival, the Office of Christian Outreach (OCO) on campus asked students to send in their written memories of the event. Copies of these reminiscences and impressions were turned over to the Archives. They are almost all by enthusiastic participants in the revival, but there is at least one that takes a more critical approach. These testimonies mostly relate to the Wheaton revival, although a few are on other events. Some were written at the time, some a few weeks later. Reports on the revival, not just at Wheaton but on other campuses, appeared in magazines and newsletters. A sampling of these are in folder 1-6, along with a memo on follow-up sent by Chaplain Stephen Kellough to the campus community immediately after the event. Folder 1-5 contains a few miscellaneous items, such as the planned agenda for the March 19th WCF service and notes prepared by [the WCF president] to help prepare students who were going to report to other places to report on the Wheaton revival and advice for people involved in similar events. The folder also has an item relating to a radio interview by Bill and Vonnette Bright of [the WCF president] about the revival.


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Series: Audio and video tapes
Arrangement: Tapes T1-T3 are in chronological order, tapes T4-T60 are in alphabetical order by the name of the interviewees (see page 26 for a list of interviews arranged chronologically). Tapes T61-T74 are in chronological order, except for T68. V1-V5 are in chronological order.
Date range: 1995-1997
Volume: 74 audio tapes (1.5 cubic feet), 5 videos
Geographic coverage: Mostly Wheaton campus, although there is information on other campuses, especially Trinity International University, Asbury College and Multnomah School of the Bible
Type of documents: Oral history interviews, a taped radio report, audio and video tapes of revival services in March 1995
Subjects: 1995 Wheaton revival, revival on other campuses
Notes: The collection contains both audio and video tape of portions of the 1995 revival meetings. Videos V1 through V5 record portions of the services on March 19, 20 and 21. They are described in more detail in the videotape location record. Audio tapes T2 and T3, described below, are of portions of the March 23 service.

The collection also contains interviews with participants in the 1943 (T31, T55) , 1950 (T30, T36, T48) and 1970 (T4, T5, T6, T44, T45) revivals. These interviews (except for T4 and T5) were done by students as part of a class project and other materials handed in by the students can be found in folder 1-8.

The main body of information in this collection consists of interviews. Those about pre-1995 revivals have been referred to above. For the 1995 revival, the Archives staff interviewed (not counting 1995 revival-related interviews in other collections) twenty-one people for more than twenty-seven hours of interviews. [The WCF president] interviewed seventeen people for almost eight hours of interviews. Interviews with some individuals took more than one reel of tape and some people were interviewed more than once. Twenty-one Wheaton students were interviewed about the revival, including four freshman (T18, T19, T29, T43), five sophomores (T32, T39, T50, T51, T57), four juniors (T13, T26 & T27, T54, T58 & T59, T60), five seniors (T12, T17, T42, T49, T56) and six graduate students (T7, T8, T40 & T41; Collections 521, 522, and 524). Also interviewed were the current (T38) and a former president of Wheaton (T4 & T5), the president of Multnomah School of the Bible (Collection 519), another Multnomah administrator (Collection 519), the Wheaton chaplain (T34 & T35), chaplains from three other colleges (T33, T37, T47), three Wheaton faculty (T9 & T10 & T11, T20, T14 & T15), four Wheaton staff (T16, T21 & T22, T23, T52 and T53), a Wheaton College librarian (T24 & T25), a local pastor (T28) and a student from another college (T46). Of the total interviews, eleven were women and thirty-seven were men. Interviews included most of the people commonly considered as providing leadership during the 1995 meetings (T10 & T11, T14 & T15, T16, T21 & T22, T24 & T25, T26 & T27, T34 & T35, T58 & T59, T60). There were also thirteen interviews that included reports on visits to other campuses, many of which experienced revivals of their own (T11, T12, T17, T39, T43, T47, T49, T50, T51, T54, T56, T57, T60).

In 1997, fourteen more interviews were taped with people who had been interviewed in 1995. They were asked about events since the revival, their attitude toward the event after the passage of two years, and its impact on Wheaton campus and elsewhere. These interviews are on tapes T61 through T74.

A significant portion of the interviews deal with the confessions made during the revival. There is no information about what particular individuals confessed to, but several interviewees discuss the types of sins confessed: lust, pride, alcoholism, drug abuse, etc. There is also discussion by several interviewees of the fact that some people mentioned during their confessions that they had been victims of sexual abuse.

Asbury College is another school which experienced revival both in 1970 and in 1995. Several interviews contain information about those events (T1, T20, T30, T42, T44, T45). Two other schools for which there is a great deal of information is Trinity International University in Deerfield, Illinois, (T7, T8, T11, T18, T33, T56) and Multnomah School of the Bible in Portland, Oregon (T46, T49, T51, Collection 519).

The content of the tapes in the collection are described briefly below. Topics are in the order that they are discussed on the tape.

T1. Anne Ortlund's report on the Wheaton revival of 1970 given at her home church, Lake Avenue Congregational Church, Pasadena, California, the Sunday evening after the awakening. Mrs. Ortlund, with her husband Rev. Raymond Ortlund Sr., was one of the leaders of the Spiritual Emphasis Week on campus that proceeded the revival. The report consists of her impressions and thoughts about the special services, cynicism on campus, description of the revival events, summaries of some of the testimonies and confessions, the impact of the Asbury College revival, and anecdotes of the revival. Raymond Ortlund Sr. adds a few comments and a prayer at the end of the tape.

T2. Recording of a portion of the March 23, 1995, revival service, held at College Church in Wheaton. Tape begins in the middle of Chaplain Stephen Kellough apparently reading written prayer requests that have been handed to the podium. The program is led by officers of the World Christian Fellowship. Most of the following speakers are unidentified. This evening intended for celebration rather than confession. Most of the tape is given over to musical numbers and hymn singing.

T3. Continuation of T3. Some hymns, followed by a brief message by College Chaplain Stephen Kellough about the revival and how people should incorporate its impact in their lives. The tape concludes just before Kellough's concluding prayer. The testimony time of the service was not recorded.

T4. (Click to link to the transcript of this tape) Interview with Hudson Taylor Armerding by Paul Ericksen. Armerding was president of Wheaton from 1965-1982. Interview is primarily about the 1970 revival on Wheaton campus, but he also talks about the high points of his life. Topics discussed include: Armerding's family background, conversion, the faith and personality of his father Carl Armerding, development of his faith, (Hudson Taylor Armerding's) education, career as a teacher and administrator, some comments on the atmosphere on campus during his administration which reflected some of the tumult in the country, the plans for Spiritual Emphasis week in 1970, the events of the revival as he experienced them, impressions of the confessions and testimonies, reconciliation on campus between people of different beliefs, faculty responses, responses to confessions, spiritual struggles and obstacles on campus before and after the revival.

T5. (Click to link to the transcript of this tape) Conclusion of Interview with Hudson Taylor Armerding by Paul Ericksen. Topics discussed include: comparison between the various revivals at Wheaton College, the impact of the revivals on various lives, personal impact of the revival. spiritual battle and the importance of intercessory prayer.

T6. Interview of Dr. John H. Armstrong by Jeff Gilliam about the revival of 1970. Armstrong was a student at Wheaton during the 1970 revival. Topics discussed include: perceived cynicism on campus when he first arrived, description of the beginning of the revival, the spontaneous nature of the revival, David Burnham's services on campus in 1969, prayer vigils before the revival, participation by Wilbert Norton in the aftermath, degree to which the whole campus was involved, impact of the revival at area churches and colleges, attitudes of the faculty toward the revival and comparison with other revivals on campus. Gilliam interviewed Armstrong as part of an assignment for Dr. Beougher's History and Theology of Revival class.

T7. Interview with Wheaton College graduate student Holly Bell by Paul Ericksen about the Wheaton revival of 1995. Topics discussed include: her personal background, conversion, spiritual development, education at Wheaton, plans for future ministry in Japan, her observation of the events leading up to the revival and her involvement in the event, talks about the aftermath of the revival, including her visit she and her husband made to Trinity International University in Deerfield, Illinois, to talk about the revival at the beginning of April and the response on that campus, impressions of the impact of the revival on the graduate school at Wheaton, stories about the effects of the revival on various people on and off Wheaton campus.

T8. Interview with Wheaton College graduate student Patrick Bell by Paul Ericksen about the Wheaton revival of 1995. Topics discussed include: description of his personal background, becoming a Christian and spiritual development, the influence of his wife, plans to teach English in Japan, events leading up to the revival, plans to videotape the revival, description of his impressions of the meetings, the largely undergraduate nature of the revival, visit to Trinity International University to report on the revival and the reaction there, report to the World Christian Fellowship at Wheaton, personal impact of the revival. The videos Bell described are V1 through V5 of this collection and are described on the videotape location record. Edited versions of these videos are available for viewing in the Archives Reading Room.

T9. Interview with Timothy Beougher by Paul Ericksen about the 1995 Wheaton revival. Beougher was director of the Institute of Evangelism at the Billy Graham Center on Wheaton campus and deeply involved with the World Christian Fellowship leadership and in the revival meetings. He was teaching a class on revivals during the spring semester of 1995, a class attended by other people involved in the revival, such as [the WCF president]. Topics discussed include: Beougher's family background, his Christian faith and spiritual development, his training under Roy Fish, Robert Coleman and others in the history of revivals, involvement in a revival in his church in Kansas during college, the positive and negative aspects of the Wheaton environment before the revival, earlier indicators of an awakening, the class on history and theology of revival, the revival at Howard Payne College in Texas, encouraging the WCF leadership to invite students from Howard Payne, convergences of providences leading to the revival, the beginning of the revival during the Sunday night WCF meeting, description of events during the revival, confession of sins, continuation of the revival throughout the week, role of leadership during the meetings, decision to end the meeting temporarily on the first night, significant personal events during the week.

T10. Conclusion of interview with Timothy Beougher by Paul Ericksen about the 1995 Wheaton revival. Topics discussed include: lessons learned from the revival, decision to send out students to tell about the revival to other schools, preparations for future revivals, Wheaton faculty responses to revival, reaction to attempts to publicize the revival, a sense of being used by God, plans for the future.

T11. Interview with Timothy Beougher by [the WCF president] about reports he made about the 1995 Wheaton revival at Trinity International University in Illinois, Gordon College in Massachusetts and the spiritual awakenings at those campuses. He also describes the confession scenes at Wheaton, Gordon and Trinity and briefly describes a visit to Messiah College in Pennsylvania. The interview was conducted as background research for a chapter [the WCF president] contributed to a 1995 book on the Wheaton awakening (Accounts of a Campus Revival/Wheaton College 1995 edited by Timothy Beougher and Lyle Dorsett, 1995).

T12. Interview with Wheaton College senior John Chung by [the WCF president] about Chung's report on the 1995 Wheaton revival at various churches and campuses. Topics discussed include: his visit to Central Baptist Church in Sioux City, Iowa, atmosphere in the church, ending of a feud, reactions of the people to the speakers, comparison to the Wheaton revival, aftereffects of the revival, description of the meeting at Iowa State University in Ames, student reactions, Wheaton students' testimonies, comparison to Wheaton's revival, effects of the revival, the meeting at the University of Wisconsin at Steven's Point, what students shared, confession by women over anger toward men's sexual sins, the service at Northern Illinois University on April 27th, concern about competition between campus ministries. The interview was conducted over the phone as background research for a chapter [the WCF president] contributed to a 1995 book on the Wheaton awakening (see description to T11 above for bibliographic information).

T13. Interview with Wheaton College junior Mark Alexander Congdon by Paul Ericksen about the Wheaton revival of 1995. Congdon was employed part-time in the Archives. This interview was, in fact, made while the revival was going on. Topics discussed include: how he first realized something unusual was going on, first impressions, prayer meetings for revival on campus, different types of confessions and testimonies at the meeting, student and staff leadership at the meetings, attendance on different nights, atmosphere of the meetings, types of emotions seen, patterns of the meetings, Bible verses referred to, chapel during the revival, support by Chaplain Stephen Kellough for the revival, Congdon's personal experience with confession, types of sins that were confessed, love of money rarely confessed, the bringing and giving up of physical enticements to sin by students, singing at the meetings, who from campus was participating in the meetings, attitudes on campus toward the meetings, attitudes of faculty members, impact of the revival on Congdon and the feeling of renewal, examples of reconciliation, peer influence not prevalent at confessions, momentum of the meeting.

T14. Interview with Wheaton College professor Lyle Wesley Dorsett by Paul Ericksen. Dorsett taught courses on evangelism at Wheaton and was a leader during the 1995 revival. Topics discussed include: family background, religious development, reasons for becoming an agnostic, conversion, influence of his wife's conversion and Christian faith, other people who were used by God to influence him, struggle with alcohol, development of his faith and ministry, influence of the 1980 Billy Graham School of Evangelism in Indianapolis, friendship with Robert E. Coleman, coming to Wheaton first as curator of the Wade Center, development of evangelism training at the College, involvement with the Billy Graham Center, never had seen a great outpouring of God's spirit before the 1995 revival, indications of a coming revival, people praying for revival at Wheaton, prayer meetings led by John Lillyman, January 1995 chapel service by James Plueddemann and a call to cross-cultural service, study with students of past revivals at Wheaton, beginning of confession of sins during the class, similar event in a previous year, prayer and confession meeting the Saturday before the WCF meeting, expectations for the WCF meeting, testimony by Brandi Maguire and James Hahn, description of the beginning of the confessions, becoming safe to confess, impressions during the first night, later attempt to change Wheaton revival into something similar to the Toronto Blessing, dedication of people to Christian service on Thursday, minimum of leadership during meetings, talk by Duane Litfin, media interest in the revival, interview on radio station WMBI, invitation to appear on the Donahue television program, description of that experience, effect of the revival on students lives.

T15. Conclusion of interview with Wheaton College professor Lyle Wesley Dorsett by Paul Ericksen about the 1995 Wheaton revival. Topics discussed include: the Wheaton revival as part of a larger work of God, caution during the revival over confession of sexual sins, the spirit in which confession was made, bondage of students to sin revealed during revival, the revival as mainly as student thing, transition to the next year.

T16. Interview with Mary Ann (Hayes) Dorsett by Paul Ericksen about the 1995 Wheaton revival. Dorsett was involved, together with her husband Lyle, in ministry to many students on campus. Topics discussed include: family background; conversion as an adult; spiritual development after conversion; reason for attending WCF on Sunday night; prayer for revival; vulnerability of one woman's confession a turning point; types of confessions; confessions by men; breaking down of barriers; quietness of the meetings; songs sung; impressions of the face of people waiting to confess; comparison with the annual Asbury Summer Assembly, a Holiness meeting; her experience counseling students; percentage of student body at meeting; students bringing physical objects that hindered them; groups represented at the meetings; music at the meetings; change on Wednesday night in the mood of the meetings; counseling a women student; participation of the worship team led by Nathanael Fawcett; dedication of students to full time ministry; power of the last meeting; connection between Christians around the world through prayer; accountability groups on campus; faculty attendance at and reaction to meetings; Robert Webber's, Lynne Hybels's and Quentin Schultze's chapel talks; planning for the meetings; materials printed up to help students in their spiritual growth; Duane Litfin's comments on Wednesday night; caution about how confessions are reported to others; attendance by groups from outside of campus; praying for people after their confessions; media attention to the revival; personal impact of the meetings; writing a pamphlet in 1994 on Wheaton revivals [this booklet, entitled Revival at Wheaton, is available in the Wheaton College Library]; hopes that the revival stays fresh; members of Nathanael Fawcett's worship team.

T17. Interview with Wheaton College senior David Michael Dummitt by [the WCF president] about Dummitt's reports on the Wheaton revival of 1995 to students on other campuses. Topics discussed included: reasons for going to Cornerstone College, preparation by the Holy Spirit, description of the meeting and people attending, comparison to the Wheaton revival, prayer over the Wheaton students for their journey to Hope College, visit to a local Vineyard church, Holy Spirit's preparation for the visit to Hope College, description of the environment at Hope, prayer time before the meeting, Dummitt's personal testimony at the meeting, student reaction to the speaking, comparisons of the revivals at Wheaton and Hope, contact with Hope afterwards, faculty response to the revival, invitation for David Dummitt and Jim Pollock to go to Ohio State, description of the meeting at Ohio State, comparison of the Ohio State meeting to the others. The interview was conducted over the phone as background research for a chapter [the WCF president] contributed to a 1995 book on the Wheaton awakening (see description to T11 above for bibliographic information). The second half of the interview was recorded over the tape of a sermon, but the sermon was not completely erased so it can be heard faintly in the background.

T18. Interview with Wheaton College freshman Joel Andrew Dylhoff by [the WCF president] about the 1995 Wheaton revival. The interview is very disjointed, with the tape recorder being turned off and on several times. The tape begins abruptly at what is apparently the end of the interview. Topics discussed include: use of the Internet to share information about the Wheaton revival, sharing with a friend in Venezuela via e-mail, sharing with his church and other groups about the Wheaton revival. After the end of the Dylhoff interview, there are a few minutes of interview with Trinity International University student Jason Falk who talks about the impact repentance has had on the life of people involved in the revival at that campus. The interview was conducted over the phone as background research for a chapter [the WCF president] contributed to a 1995 book on the Wheaton awakening (see description to T11 above for bibliographic information). The second half of the interview was recorded over the tape of a sermon, but the sermon was not completely erased so it can be heard faintly in the background.

T19. Interview with Wheaton College freshman Jonathan Price Easterling by Robert Shuster. Easterling was one of the student workers of the Billy Graham Center Archives. Topics discussed include: Easterling's background, his conversion experience, reason for coming to Wheaton, expectations of a revival on campus before the event, how he first heard of the revival, conversations on campus the day after the beginning of the revival, description of the meeting on Monday, March 20, characteristics of the crowd, the effect on Easterling's discipleship group, [the WCF president]'s warning about emotionalism, collection of objects of temptation, comments on faculty presence, comments on confessions, the aftermath of confessions, length of the meetings, comments about the meetings among ROTC students, example of how the meetings effected people's conduct, discussion of revival during math class, influence of the revival on campus, reason for not going to all the meetings, importance of prayer.

T20. Interview with Mark Elliott by Robert Shuster about the 1995 Wheaton revival. Elliot was a professor at Wheaton and director of the Institute of East-West Christian Studies at the time. Topics discussed include: conversion during illness, involvement in the 1970 Asbury College revival, first (negative) reports he heard of the meetings, going to the meetings on Saturday, "revival comes when a place is needy and recognizes its need," turmoil in administration preceded revival, character of the one meeting he attended, characteristics of the 1970 revival gathered from reading as well as experience, comparison of confessions at the 1970 meeting and the 1995 meetings, nonstudent participation, reaction in 1970, part played by Clarence Hunter, Billy Thompson's television coverage of the meeting, speaking in tongues at the meeting, Timothy Beougher's interest in the Asbury revival, first report of the 1995 Wheaton revival, discussion of the revival in his Russian church history class, normalcy of campus at the time, desire of people to avoid saying "revival," mixed though largely supportive reaction of faculty, program of the meetings on Wednesday and Thursday night, importance of prayer groups at the meetings, his reaction to the confessions, faculty participation, importance of the WCF services at Wheaton, memories of the Thursday night meeting, question about the meetings being stopped when they were, size of the crowd on Thursday night, other elements of the worship, dedication of students to Christian service, sharing about the revival at the Blanchard Road Alliance Church, chaplain's report on outside reaction to the revival, question about the policy of not allowing recordings of revival, influence of the Asbury videotapes on the revival at Olivet Nazarene College, report on the 1995 revival at Asbury, report on a revival at Eastern Nazarene College, impact of the Toronto revival at Asbury, comparison of the participation of the college administration at Asbury in 1970 and at Wheaton in 1995, changes at Wheaton since the revival, personal summary of what happened at the Wheaton revival, effect of the revivals of 1995 on the Christian college movement, personal impact of the Wheaton revival.

T21. (Click to link to the transcript of this tape) Interview with Kevin William Engel by Robert Shuster about the 1995 Wheaton revival. Engel was the assistant director of the campus' Office of Christian Outreach and an important leader at the revival services. Topics discussed include: family background, conversion at the age of fifteen, decision to enter full-time Christian service, return to Wheaton as assistant director of the Office of Christian Outreach, original plans for the March 19th WCF meeting, description of the revival at Howard Payne College, discussion of whether students from Howard Payne should be invited to speak at WCF, discussion with Timothy Beougher about the Howard Payne revival, attempt to schedule the student visit during spring break, Timothy Beougher's financial support of visit, final arrangements for the March 19th meeting, typical meetings of the WCF, anticipation concerning the March 19th meeting, Nathanael Fawcett's agenda for the meeting [copy of this document is in folder 1-5], fears about the meeting, discussion of how to handle the "open mike" portion of the meeting, testimonies of the two Howard Payne students, beginnings of confessions, developing guidelines for confessions, beginning of prayer support groups for confessors, growing excitement about what was happening, types of confessions, struggle of male students with sexual sin, sounds of the meeting, songs sung, end of the first night meeting, development of the second night meeting, contacts with the WCF leadership before the meeting, comments from the campus community after the first meeting, characteristics of the Monday night meeting, giving up physical stumbling blocks to sin, move to College Church on Tuesday night, theology of place, character of Tuesday night, types of confessions, confessions about racism, character of Wednesday night, attendance by faculty, Duane Litfin's comments, lack of faculty confession, reactions from off campus including Operation Mobilization, participation by College Church pastors, reaction of local pastors and colleges, reference to the Toronto Revival, reports about the revival, ending of the meeting on Wednesday night, events of Thursday night, comments of Stephen Kellough, student testimonies.

T22. (Click to link to the transcript of this tape) Conclusion of Interview with Kevin William Engel by Robert Shuster about the 1995 Wheaton revival. Topics discussed include: call to Christian service, comments by Jean Blumhagen, decision to end meetings, plans for follow-up, lack of faith, physical strain of meeting, plans for students to go to other campuses and churches to tell about the revival, campus criticism of revival leadership, faculty support of follow-up efforts, summary of what happened during the revival, personal impact of meetings.

T23. Interview of Paul Arthur Ericksen by Robert Shuster about the 1995 Wheaton revival. Ericksen was associate director of the Archives. This interview was, in fact, made while the revival was going on. Topics discussed include: conversion, involvement in Christian work including Inter-Varsity, first reports of the revival on campus, reports over e-mail, attending the meetings on Wednesday night, the program, music, size of group, the singing, observations of the crowd, Kevin Engel's comments, President Litfin's comments and his desire not to influence the process, presence of faculty and staff, Tim Beougher's comments, students getting rid of things that caused them to sin, sample of different confessions, praying after confessions, other memories of the night, casualness of the meetings, sounds of the meeting, personal reaction to the revival, debate over the term "revival".

T24. Interview with John W. Fawcett by Robert Shuster about the 1995 Wheaton revival. Fawcett was a librarian at the College and an important leader during the revival. Topics discussed include: Conversion as a child, attending Wheaton through the influence of Russell Shedd, returning to Wheaton as a librarian in 1987, community and campus ministries, phone call at 11pm on March 19 about the beginning revival, concerns about the revival, first impression s of meeting, estimate of the size of the group, character of the meeting, types of confessions, including confessions to sexual sins, prayers for those who confessed, why revival comes at a certain time, talk about the revival on campus the next day, reason for not attending Monday night, move from Pierce Chapel to College Church on Tuesday night, program of the evening, character of Tuesday and Wednesday nights, description of the prayer groups, praying and counseling with students, involvement of Jeffry Davis, manifestations of the presence of the Holy Spirit, troubling confessions, music at the meetings, Scripture used at the meetings, involvement of faculty, opposition to the revival, participation by people from outside of campus, leadership provided by Chaplain Kellough, character of Thursday night worship service, comments on the testimonies, testimony of a student who was converted at the meeting, comments by Jean Blumhagen, dedication of students to Christian service, songs sung, song "We Will Dance," joy and power of the singing, relationship with his brother Nathanael, coming down off the mountain, prophecy about an awakening at Wheaton, meeting of the Church of the Resurrection in Edman Chapel and the influence of the church on campus, manifestation of God's power at the church's service, the Gospel Choir concert on Friday night, the Sunday worship service at the Church of the Resurrection, plans for support for people who had confessed to sins of dependency

T25. Conclusion of interview with John W. Fawcett by Robert Shuster about the 1995 Wheaton revival. Topics discussed include: plans for support for people who had confessed to sins of dependency, impact of peer pressure in the revival, summary of what happened during the 1995 revival.

T26. Interview with Wheaton College junior Nathanael T. Fawcett by Paul Ericksen about the 1995 Wheaton revival. Fawcett was the leader of the worship team (primarily responsible for music) during the revival. Topics discussed include: spiritual development, preparing for the March 19 WCF meeting, decision to invite the students from Howard Payne University, expectations for the meeting, events before the meeting, description of the meeting, exhaustion of the students, decision to end the Sunday night meeting, description of people waiting to confess, size of Monday night meeting, decision to move to College Church, comparison of the five evening meetings, faculty involvement and attitude toward the revival, lack of negative reaction among students, attitudes on campus toward OCO and WCF, personal low point on Sunday night, group exhaustion on Wednesday night, leadership planning meetings during the week.

T27. Conclusion of interview with Wheaton College junior Nathanael T. Fawcett by Paul Ericksen about the 1995 Wheaton revival. Topics discussed include: March 24 WCF cabinet meeting, arranging for the music each night, the song "We Will Dance," other frequently used songs, importance of songs at the meetings, memories of leading the meeting, the powerful impact of the worship at the meetings, leaders during the week, deepening of his relationship with his brother John, John's part in the meetings, President Litfin's participation on Wednesday night, importance of the dedication of students to full-time Christian service on Thursday night, desire to maintain purity, need to share with others what had happened at Wheaton, tearing up his credit card, telling his parents about the revival.

T28. Interview with Randall J. Gruendyke by Robert Shuster about the 1995 Wheaton revival. Gruendyke was an alumnus of the College and college pastor at the nearby College Church of Wheaton. Topics discussed include: his conversion as a child, associations with Wheaton College, 1979 day of prayer at Wheaton when he was a student, student from Howard Payne College speaking at College Church's Sunday school, attendance at Pierce on Sunday evening after confessions had begun, impression of the meeting at this early stage, thoughts about the confessions, intensity on the first night, activities during that night, Gruendyke's Bible study and confession the next day, Psalm 119: 26-33, confession the only unifying element of the meetings, different character of each night's meeting, reports of the second night, move from Pierce to College Church on the third night, advantages of College Church as a site, deliverance of a person from a demonic presence, reaction of College Church staff to the revival, debate whether sermon should be offered before confessions, reluctance of the meeting leadership to put themselves forward or over plan, character of fourth night, activities on the fifth night, participation of Duane Litfin on Wednesday, comments by Stephen Kellough and others on Thursday night, testimonies on Thursday night, student who talked about finding Christ (Penny Mason), dedication to missions on the last night, size of the groups each night, inquires from other area pastors, faculty attendance at meetings, caution of pastors, need for care in telling people about the meetings, visits by Life Action Ministries and Moody Radio, visits by students from other colleges, personal impact of meetings, emphasis on salvation in his ministry, recent developments in College Church, interaction between College Church and the College, bad teaching reflected in some confessions, presence of spectators, reaction to charge of emotionalism at the meetings, signs of the meetings' authenticity, peer pressure, revival as a sign of judgement, part played by the Second Person of the Trinity in the Bible, the spirit of Jesus at the meetings, gratitude to God.

T29. Interview with Wheaton College freshman Timothy Mark Harder by Robert Shuster about the 1995 Wheaton revival. Harder was employed part-time in the Billy Graham Center Archives. This interview was, in fact, made while the revival was going on. Topics discussed include: family background, development of Harder's Christian faith over time, reasons for coming to Wheaton College, first knowledge of a revival on campus, attending the service on Monday night, reaction on campus to the revival, previous experiences of revival, type of singing, description of the crowd, getting rid of CDS and other objects that led to temptation, description of confessions on Monday night, sounds of the meeting, lengths of confessions, example of confessions, pride and lust as the main subject of confessions, conflicts in Men's Glee Club, Harder's personal reaction to the meetings, attendance by faculty.

T30. Interview with Warren Hayes, class of '50, by Wheaton College senior Scott Lawrence Ruschak about the 1950 Wheaton revival. Hayes was present as a student during that revival. Topics discussed include: family background, Christian faith before coming to Wheaton, influence of the war and atomic bomb testing, reasons for attending Wheaton, events leading up to the revival, Phyllis Brattland's testimony, Dr. Clarence Hale's confession at Tuesday chapel, Wednesday night meeting, examples of student confessions and testimonies, Phyllis Brattland's death, Betty Burtness' testimony, presence of the Holy Spirit, Hayes' personal testimony of the revival, confessions continue to Thursday morning, events of Thursday morning, February 9, presence of newspaper reporters, people who didn't believe in revival, the revival's spread to Asbury and elsewhere, faculty confessions, Dr. Paul Wright's confession, University of Chicago student's conversion, the spread of the revival, icy weather on Monday and lack of light, close of the revival on Monday night, prayer leading up to the revival, results of the revival, surprise that the revival hasn't saturated the nation, comparison to Jonathan Goforth's revivals in China, Edwin Johnson's preparation for the revival, number of students who made confessions, closing prayer. Ruschak interviewed Hayes as part of an assignment for Dr. Beougher's History and Theology of Revival class. Hayes written account of the revival is in folder 1-3.

T31. Interview with Mertis E. (Byram) Heimbach, class of '43, by Wheaton College special student Robert Owen Roberts about the Wheaton revival of 1943. Heimbach was a student at the college during that revival. Topics discussed include: family background, impact of the revival, prayer groups on campus, the revival as a spontaneous work of the Holy Spirit, participation by the campus community, how people acted during confessions, her interest in missions, reason for coming to Wheaton, more on prayer on campus, impact of the revival on the class of '43, a saying of Dr. Edman's, atmosphere on campus after the revival, causes of the revival, personal impact of the revival on Heimbach, power of prayer, the need for repentance and heart searching, confession of an athlete to playing on Sunday, reconciliation as a result of the revival, coming judgement. Roberts interviewed Heimbach as part of an assignment for Dr. Beougher's History and Theology of Revival class.

T32. Interview with Wheaton College sophomore Sara Henning by Paul Ericksen about the 1995 Wheaton College revival. Henning was employed part-time in the Archives. This interview was, in fact, made while the revival was going on. Topics discussed include: visit to campus from Howard Payne University students , beginning of a revival at the World Christian Fellowship meeting, Henning's feelings at the start, details of the first meeting, difference between the different nights of the revival, move from Pierce Chapel to College Church, attitudes toward the revival, attendance by people outside of Wheaton College, emotion at the meetings, causes of skepticism, praying for people, response of men to the revival, Henning's personal reaction to the events, peer pressure to attend meetings, paucity of staff and faculty involvement, attitudes of the faculty, names for what was happening, expectations and hopes for after the revival, types of sins confessed, garbage bag filled with objects that led people into sin or distracted them from their faith, "no questions asked" during confession periods, type of direction provided by leaders, relations with roommates, Henning's experience of confession, personal impact of revival, preparation of hearts for revival.

T33. Interview with Hutz Hertzberg by [the WCF president] about a religious awakening on the campus of Trinity International University in Deerfield, Illinois. Hertzberg was the chaplain at Trinity. Topics discussed include: events and attitudes leading up to the Trinity revival, chapel services with Ron Hutchcraft, description of the Trinity College chapel service where Wheaton students reported on their revival, description of the Trinity Evangelical Divinity Seminary chapel, summary of student confessions, chapel services with Dr. Erwin Lutzer, summary of the evening meetings, importance of not trying to force a revival, uniqueness of the revival in Trinity's history. The interview was conducted over the phone as background research for a chapter [the WCF president] contributed to a 1995 book on the Wheaton awakening (see description to T11 above for bibliographic information).

T34. Interview of Stephen B. Kellough by Paul Ericksen about the 1995 Wheaton revival. Kellough was the college chaplain. Topics discussed included: family religious background, development of his faith in Christ, influence of Evan Welsh and Robert Webber, further higher education, coming to Wheaton as chaplain in 1989, signs of a coming revival in 1995, organization of the annual day of prayer because of student initiative, prayer groups on campus, first awareness of students being invited from Howard Payne University to speak at the World Christian Fellowship, typical nature of the meeting at the start, description of the speakers, Matt [the WCF president]'s comments, beginning of confessions, description of the process of confession and prayer huddles, emotionalism at the meeting, role of the meeting's leaders, use of Scripture, length of the meeting the first night, expectations after the first meeting, decision to stop and reconvene later, atmosphere on the second evening, Kellough's briefing of Robert Webber and President Litfin, Weber's presentation in chapel, concerns about confessions, standards for public confessions, rarity of blame in confession, depth and breath of sharing in confessions, characteristics of the different nights, President Litfin's comments on Wednesday night, other speakers that night, attendance mostly made up of students, meeting with Litfin about the revival, student reaction to Litfin's comments, contacts with faculty, conference of leaders of the meeting on Wednesday, unity of leaders, move to College Church on Tuesday night from Pierce Chapel, disturbed about leaving Pierce Chapel, estimate of the size of the group on Tuesday night, advantages of using College Church, decision making among the leadership, Kellough's message on Thursday night.

T35. Conclusion of interview of Stephen B. Kellough by Paul Ericksen about the 1995 Wheaton revival. Topics discussed included: Kellough's message on Thursday night, role as chaplain, little criticism of revival on campus, continuation of classes during the revival, fatigue during the revival, dangers from the interest of media in revival, follow-up on revival, personal impact of the revival.

T36. Interview with Betty (Burtness) Knoedler, class of '50 by Wheaton College graduate student Virginia Feldmann about the Wheaton revival of 1950. Knoedler was a student present during that revival. Topics include: family background, development of her faith as a young girl, reason for coming to Wheaton, death of Phyllis Brattland and its influence on the 1950 revival, maturity of male students who had been soldiers as a factor in the revival, beginning of the revival during an evening service, behavior of people, confession of sin, importance of prayer, participation of faculty, marathon nature of the meeting, cause of the revival, Dr. Edman's influence, listening to different confessions, influence of the revival on her personally, press reports of the revival, long term personal impact of the revival, part played by music, voluntary nature of the meeting, percentage of College community participating, types of confession, comparison of Wheaton in 1995 and in 1950, what holds back revival, hopes for another revival at Wheaton, end of the 1950 revival, revival in the individual heart, connection between suffering and revival, skipping meals during the 1950 revival. Feldmann interviewed Knoedler as part of an assignment for Dr. Beougher's History and Theology of Revival class.

T37. Interview of Gregg Lamm by [the WCF president] about the visit the April 1995 revival on the campus of George Fox College. Lamm was chaplain at Fox. Topics discussed include: events leading up to the revival, visit by Wheaton students, description of the chapel service and the following meetings, student responses, effects of the revival, dampening influences on the revival. The interview was conducted over the phone as background research for a chapter [the WCF president] contributed to a 1995 book on the Wheaton awakening (see description to T11 above for bibliographic information).

T38. Interview with Duane Litfin by Robert Shuster about the 1995 Wheaton Revival. Litfin was president of Wheaton College. Topics discussed include: conversion to Christianity as a child, first report of the revival on campus, reactions to the revival, range of student reactions to the meetings, his feelings about if he should participate, faculty reaction to meetings, attendance at the Wednesday service, concern about degree of self-disclosure in confessions, his comments at the meetings, general impressions of the confessions, characteristics of the Wednesday night meeting, the worship service on Thursday, types of praises on Thursday night, reactions from off campus, College administration's participation in the aftermath of the revival, personal description of the revival.

T39. Interview with Wheaton College sophomore Claudia Micaela Lopez by [the WCF president] about Lopez's report to the students of Judson College about the 1995 Wheaton revival. Topics discussed include: events leading to the trip to Judson College, description of the meeting, attitudes prior to the meeting, summary of Eric Sanzone's message, description of student reactions and confessions, comparison to the Wheaton revival, response to the revival, her personal experience. The interview was conducted over the phone as background research for a chapter [the WCF president] contributed to a 1995 book on the Wheaton awakening (see description to T11 above for bibliographic information).

T40. Interview with Wheaton College graduate student Penny Mason by Robert Shuster about the 1995 Wheaton revival. Topics discussed include: family background in the Church of God of Prophecy, growing up as a pastor's kid, spiritual development before Wheaton, reason for coming to Wheaton, first news about the revival on campus on Sunday evening, description of the scene at the meeting, types of confessions, initial skepticism, developing conviction in the reality of the event, expectations on campus before the WCF meeting began, sounds of the meeting, "ugly time of confession," songs sung during confessions and prayer, biblical passages quoted, communal sharing and praying, Mason's need to participate in each meeting, growing awareness of her own sin and hypocrisy, prayer in BGC Museum chapel and praying with a stranger (Campus Crusade worker), committing her life to Christ alone in the chapel, experience great joy and going to the Museum's cloud room, telling others of her decision, telling her story at the praise service on Thursday, reaction to her testimony, dedication of people to Christian service, revival as something brought by God, summary of what happened during the revival, prayer that preceded the revival, influence of [the WCF president] and other leaders, reaction of a Muslim to the meeting, faculty attendance at the meetings, rumors of opposition on campus, prayer and confession among Asian students.

T41. Conclusion of interview with Wheaton College graduate student Penny Mason by Robert Shuster about the 1995 Wheaton revival. Topics discussed include: avoiding sharing her testimony with groups, interaction between grad students and undergrads because of the revival, other differences, difference in WCF meetings, examining her call to be a missionary, awareness of the revival outside of the College community, use of e-mail to tell about the revival, praying for Trinity College and Seminary, sharing her faith with neighbors from Uzbek, feeling about God's grace, reaction of her parents to her conversion.

T42. Interview with Wheaton College senior Nathan Leander Oates by Paul Ericksen about the 1995 Wheaton revival. Topics discussed include: family background, conversion, spiritual development, reason for coming to Wheaton, hopes for a youth ministry, participation in all the Wheaton 1995 revival, importance of the Thursday night worship service, personal impact of the presence of God at the service, desire to share the experience, influence on his life since the end of the meetings, involvement of the Christian Education faculty in the revival, Thursday night as a service of cleansed Christians, revivals (evangelism) in the Church of the Nazarene, Oates' selection by Lyle Dorsett to report on the revival at Asbury College, fear and sense of responsibility in going, preparing his report, confession in the Holiness tradition, the confessional services that followed the Wheaton report, development of the meeting, the arrangements to go to Asbury, time spent on campus before the meeting, prayer before the meeting, Vineyard conference held on campus a short time earlier, value of the Wheaton students as a catalyst, developments at Asbury after the Wheaton students left, confession of sexual sins, personal impact of the Asbury revival, feelings as he left the meeting, comparison of the Wheaton and Asbury revivals, very active support from administration, prevalence of sexual sins, reporting to various people on his return to Wheaton, presentation at a World Christian Fellowship meeting, atmosphere on Wheaton campus since the revival, reconciliation between people, parents' response to the revival, mixed response of churches to the revival, difference in chapel meetings since the revival, appreciation of Chaplain Kellough, arrangements for reports on the Wheaton revival to be carried, sense of privilege at having been involved, expectations for the future.

T43. Interview with Wheaton College freshman Amarachukwu C. Okoroafor by [the WCF president] about the 1995 Wheaton revival and the report she made on it at Trinity Christian College. Topics discussed included: selection to go on April 26 to Trinity Christian College to report, reason for going, arrangements for the meeting with the local Inter-Varsity group, size of meeting, beginning of the meeting, song "The Altar," experiences of revival in Wheaton's Gospel Choir, first news of students from Howard Payne to visit Wheaton, expectations of something going to happen, other testimony about the revival, confessions at the meeting, secular atmosphere at Trinity. The interview was conducted over the phone as background research for a chapter [the WCF president] contributed to a 1995 book on the Wheaton awakening (see description to T11 above for bibliographic information).

T44. Interview with Raymond C. Ortlund Jr., class of 71, by Wheaton College graduate student Timothy Allen Belding about the Wheaton revival of 1970. Ortlund was a student at the College during that revival. Topics discussed include: Ortlund's ministry and teaching history, reason for attending Wheaton, reason why Ortlund does not use the word "revival," listening to his father preach during special services on campus, influence on Ortlund of the Jesus People movement, unexpectedness of the revival when it came, anger of black students on campus, influence of the Asbury revival, beginning of the revival through testimonies and confessions, memories of some of the confessions, President Armerding's response after the Friday chapel, the Ortlunds' honorarium, background to Rev. Ortlund Sr. coming to preach, very low participation by College faculty, prayer meetings before the revival, impact of the revival on Ortlund, rebelliousness against Evangelicalism among Wheaton College students, summary of Ortlund's pervious comments, atmosphere on campus after the revival, lack of response by faculty, the impact of a revival. Ortlund refers during the interview to an e-mail message he sent Belding and to a tape his mother made about the revival. The tape is T1 of this collection, an edited version of the message in folder 1-8. Belding interviewed the Ortlund as part of an assignment for Dr. Beougher's History and Theology of Revival class.

T45. Interview with Rev. Raymond C. Sr. and Anne Ortlund by Wheaton College junior [the WCF president] about the revival of 1970. Rev. Ortlund was the evangelist of the campus special services during which that revival occurred. Topics covered include: summary of the Ortlunds' ministry, including Lake Avenue Congregational Church in Pasadena, California and the Haven of Rest radio program, the influence of the Wheaton revival on their ministry, other revivals the Ortlunds witnessed, prayer that preceded the revival, the importance of confession of sins, anti-establishment spirit on Wheaton campus, the marathon nature of the meetings during the revival, the first confession that started the revival, events of the first night, examples of confessions and repentance, spontaneous nature of meetings, expectations before the meetings, examples of student hostility before the meetings, attendance of students from Asbury Seminary, which had just had a revival, hostility of a black student because of racism on campus, Ortlund's sermons, Mrs. Ortlund's report to their church after the revival, effect of the revival on the Ortlunds, some people affected, some not, Edwin Johnson and the revival of 1950, the Ortlunds' method of encouraging revival in their current ministry, example of frightening manifestations at a recent meeting they have led, other revivals they have witnessed, comparison of the Wheaton revival with those at other colleges, terminology: "revival" and "renewal", revival at their own church in California. The other tape referred to during the interview, Mrs. Ortlund's report to their church made a couple days after their return from Wheaton in 1970, is tape T1 in this collection. [The WCF president] interviewed the Ortlunds as part of an assignment for Dr. Beougher's History and Theology of Revival class.

T46. Interview with Multnomah School of the Bible student Michael Anthony Paolicelli by [the WCF president] about the April 1995 revival at Multnomah. Topics discussed included : description of the service following the chapel where Wheaton students spoke, description of the campus day-of-prayer service, decision to cancel classes on Good Friday, importance of regarding the revival as a beginning, key questions to ask.

T47. Interview with Benjamin Patterson by [the WCF president] about the 1995 revival at Hope College, where Patterson was chaplain. Topics discussed include: prayer preceding the revival, service at which Wheaton College students reported on the revival on their campus, response of the Hope students, four following meetings, summary of student confessions, significance of the revival, negative reactions by students and faculty and response to negative reactions. The interview was conducted over the phone as background research for a chapter [the WCF president] contributed to a 1995 book on the Wheaton awakening (see description to T11 above for bibliographic information).

T48. Interview with Leroy H. Pfund, class of '49, by Wheaton College senior Doug O'Donnell about the revival of 1950. Pfund was a faculty member at the time of that revival. Topics include: Family background, state of his Christian faith when he went to Wheaton, decision to attend Wheaton, attendance at the 1950 special services, Dr. Clarence Hale's confession during the meeting, Edwin Johnson's preaching, length of the meeting, causes of the revival, prayer groups on campus, influence of a revival at Wheaton Academy on the revival at Wheaton College, influence of the revival outside of the campus, effect on the faculty, effect of the revival on coaches and athletes, curiosity seekers coming to the meeting, music during the meeting, the institution of special services every year, influence of campus ministries on the revival, importance of testimonies and confessions, leadership during the meeting, campus participation in the revival, end of the revival, personal response to the revival, continuing Christian example of President Edman and faculty. O'Donnell interviewed Pfund as part of an assignment for Dr. Beougher's History and Theology of Revival class.

T49. Interview with Wheaton College senior Scott Allen Polender by [the WCF president] about Polender's report on the Wheaton revival at George Fox College and Multnomah School of the Bible. Topics discussed include: being chosen to go to George Fox College, preparation and attitudes prior to the chapel service, Roy Hiebert, description of the chapel service, students reactions, chaplain's desire not to force the revival, demand of the leadership that the Wheaton students stay longer, disappointments at the night service, need not to judge confessions, restraints on confessions, comparison between day and night meetings, comparison between the meetings at Wheaton and at George Fox, importance of sexual sin, end of meetings at George Fox, groups begun after the meetings, meeting Multnomah students, effect of mess-up in scheduling, comparison of students at George Fox and Multnomah, description of the Multnomah meeting, message given by the Polender, enthusiastic reaction of the students, types of confessions made, different characteristics of the Multnomah meeting, personal reaction to the Multnomah visit and the confessions there. The interview was conducted as background research for a chapter [the WCF president] contributed to a 1995 book on the Wheaton awakening (see description to T11 above for bibliographic information).

T50. Interview with Wheaton College sophomore Eric Michael Sanzone by [the WCF president] about Sanzone's report on the Wheaton revival of 1995 to the students of Timothy Christian High School in Elmhurst, Illinois. Topics discussed include: background of the visit to Timothy Christian High School, description of the school and meeting, summary of the messages and student confessions, comparison to the Wheaton revival. The interview was conducted over the phone as background research for a chapter [the WCF president] contributed to a 1995 book on the Wheaton awakening (see description to T11 above for bibliographic information).

T51. Interview with Wheaton College sophomore Elizabeth Ann Simpson by [the WCF president] about Simpson's reports to students at George Fox College, Northwestern College and Multnomah School of the Bible. Topics discussed include: background of her visit to Northwestern College, attitudes of the students before the visit, summary of the testimonies of Elizabeth Simpson and [the WCF president], description of the service afterward and student confessions, comparison to the Wheaton revival, effects of the meetings, background of the visit to George Fox college, attitudes and events leading up to the service, description of the chapel service, summary of the testimonies of the Wheaton students and student confessions, comparison to the Wheaton revival, opinions of how the chapel service ended, description of evening service, situation at Multnomah, summary of her testimony and the chapel service, comparison to the other experiences, students' fear to confess due to the possibility of being kicked out, her reactions to the visit to Multnomah. The interview was conducted as background research for a chapter [the WCF president] contributed to a 1995 book on the Wheaton awakening (see description to T11 above for bibliographic information).

T52. Interview with Donald Smarto by Robert Shuster about Smarto's religious background and events that took place during a student trip to Florida just before the 1995 Wheaton revival. Smarto was director of the Billy Graham Center's Institute of Prison Ministry. Topics discussed include: family's Roman Catholic background, his Pharisaism, his tonsure as a Benedictine monk, desire to exercise power over others, studying to be a priest at a monastery in Missouri, secluded nature of the monastery, being disciplined because of participation in a peace rally during the Vietnam war, parody of ecclesiastical corruption in a movie suggested his own need of salvation, his conversion experience in a corn field, working out the meaning of his faith leading to leaving the Roman Catholic church, an Evangelical writer's difficulty with the story of Smarto's conversion, taking a group of students to Florida to witness in prisons over 1995 spring break, some realities of prison ministry, development of the spring break Florida program, usual pattern of the late night meetings during previous spring break projects, comments of another trip chaperon, Mark Clark about the part students from the trip played in the Wheaton revival meetings, description of prison ministry activities during the day on Thursday including talking to a Christian prisoner with AIDS, start of Thursday night meeting with students, experience of the women students in the prisons, spiritual eruption of the group when hearing the prisoner's story, sobbing among the students, confessions of sin and prayer, incidents of the evening, part played by the Holy Spirit, reflections on the event, impact of the event on Smarto, sin on Wheaton's campus, changed behavior of students after the meeting.

T53. Conclusion of interview with Donald Smarto by Robert Shuster about Smarto's religious background and events that took place during a student trip to Florida just before the 1995 Wheaton revival. Topics discussed include: impact of events on a chaperon, continuing response from students on the trip, confession from a "perfect" student, donation from a "wallflower," summary of what happened during the Thursday night meeting, personal impact, reaction of fear to a movement of God, hypocrisy and the need for renewal, awareness of the need for trust, other experience of the power of the Holy Spirit, efforts to force a revival at PTL Ministries and elsewhere.

T54. Interview with Wheaton College junior David Michael Terry by [the WCF president] about Terry's report on the Wheaton revival of 1995 to the Calvary Church in Naperville, Illinois. Topics discussed include: background to speaking at Calvary Church, description of the service and atmosphere that night, summary of his message, reactions of the people, comparison to the Wheaton revival, his feelings about the experience. The interview was conducted as background research for a chapter [the WCF president] contributed to a 1995 book on the Wheaton awakening (see description to T11 above for bibliographic information).

T55. Interview with Rev. Robert C. Urquhart, class of '43, by Wheaton College graduate student Daniel David Olson about the Wheaton revival of 1943. Topics discussed include: family background, state of his Christian faith and reason for coming to Wheaton, studies at Wheaton in 1943, atmosphere and speakers in fall of 1943, Rev. Harold P. Warren, conviction of sins at the revival, revival's influence on Urquhart, cessation of classes during revival, formation of prayer groups, prayer meeting led by Urquhart after the revival, causes of the revival, possible negative effects, description of Urquhart's spiritual life before and after the revival, popular choruses of that time, faculty participation, impact of the revival, World War II's influence on it, importance of revival. Olson interviewed Urquhart as part of an assignment for Dr. Beougher's History and Theology of Revival class.

T56. Interview with Wheaton College senior Keith Raymond Walker by [the WCF president] about Walker's report on the Wheaton revival of 1995 to the students of Trinity International University in Deerfield, Illinois, and at local churches. Topics discussed include: background of his visit to Trinity, his feelings about going, attitudes and preparation before the chapel service, description of the service and the messages by Keith Walker, Mary Dorsett, and Bridget Mason, reactions of the students, description of the services that came from the Monday chapel, long-term effects, comparison to the Wheaton revival, description of reports made at the Church of the Resurrection and Crystal Lake Evangelical Free Church. The interview was conducted as background research for a chapter [the WCF president] contributed to a 1995 book on the Wheaton awakening (see description to T11 above for bibliographic information).

T57. Interview with Wheaton College sophomore Rachael Christine Winn by [the WCF president] about Winn's visit on April 30, 1995 to Marion Avenue Baptist Church in Aurora, Illinois, to report on the Wheaton revival. Topics covered include: reason for going to the church, expectations on going to the church, characteristics of the church, description of her report, unexpected strong response of the congregation, confessions by people, aftermath of the service, power of the Holy Spirit, comparison of the confessions at the church service and those during the Wheaton revival, all confessions were by men, Tim Beougher's connection to the church, the effect on Winn of the experience. The interview was conducted as background research for a chapter [the WCF president] contributed to a 1995 book on the Wheaton awakening (see description to T11 above for bibliographic information).

T58. (Click to link to the transcript of this tape) Interview with Wheaton College junior [the WCF president] by Paul Ericksen. [The WCF president] was chairman of the World Christian Fellowship and one of the leaders during the 1995 revival. Topics discussed include: family background, story of [the WCF president]'s conversion, development of his faith, reason for coming to Wheaton, prayer as one of the causes of the revival, [the WCF president]'s prayer and fasting for revivals, convergences of providences, reason for bringing the students from Howard Payne University to speak about the revival on that campus, the discussion in the WCF cabinet, assistance from Kevin Engel, efforts involved in arranging for the students to come from Howard Payne, description of these students, planning the WCF meeting ([the WCF president] refers to the agenda in folder 1-5), contribution of Kevin Engel, comparison between events at Howard Payne and Wheaton, openness to the movement of the Holy Spirit, sign that the revival was a real work of God, description of the confessions, attendance at the first meeting, [the WCF president]'s role in the meeting, the videotaping of the meeting, [the WCF president]'s observation of students at the start of the meeting, impact of the testimony of the students from Howard Payne, comments on students giving confessions, prayer by groups of students for those who confessed, attitudes of students waiting to confess, the importance of listening to the confessions, leaders of the meetings, characteristics of the different nights of the revivals, comments by Timothy Beougher and Lyle Dorsett on Wednesday night, end of confessions, Thursday as an evening of celebration, prayer for students committed to full-time Christian service, participation by Wheaton College president Duane Litfin, some significant memories from the meetings, response to news of the revival, role of leadership at the meetings, sincereness of the confessions, meetings of the leadership group, God working through the entire group, methods of the leadership, part played by [the WCF president] and Kevin Engel, contribution of Timothy Beougher, Lyle Dorsett, and Stephen Kellough, how decisions were reached, discussion on whether to let the confessions continue, influx of people in and out during the meetings, questions about the revival.

T59. (Click to link to the transcript of this tape) Conclusion of the Interview with Wheaton College junior [and WCF president] by Paul Ericksen. Topics discussed include: low faculty attendance, need for caution in repeating anything heard in student confessions, the revival as an event of the campus rather than the community, visitors from outside campus, press interest in the event, the influence of the class on revivals that preceded the Wheaton revival, comments on the interview [the WCF president] did with the Ortlunds (tape T45), personal impact of revival on [the WCF president], use of the word "revival," aftermath of the revival, the first WCF meeting after the revival, lack of contact with the Toronto Blessing, invitations for students to speak about the Wheaton revival on other campuses, the bringing to the stage objects that lead people to sin.

T60. Interview with Wheaton College junior [and the WCF president] by Paul Ericksen. [The WCF president] was chairman of the World Christian Fellowship and one of the leaders during the 1995 revival. Topics discussed include: visits to other campuses after the revival, arranging for students to go to other campuses, coordination by Kevin Engel, criteria for responding to an invitation, list of various schools [the WCF president] spoke at, reasons why [the WCF president] went to various places, things learned during his first visits, the visit to North Park College, going not expecting particular results, things leadership at confessional meeting should know, the importance of the leadership to be open to the unplanned, response to that advice, comments on the Toronto Blessing, speaking at his home church in Iowa, the power of confession on people, changes on Wheaton campus since the revival, awkwardness of special treatment because of his part in the revival, example of spiritual opposition at Messiah campus, reports on his trips at WCF and other groups on Wheaton campus, informal information network about revivals, the type of presentation [the WCF president] made at the campuses he visited (Note: The papers that [the WCF president] mentions , "Helpful hints for those going out to share" and "Important suggestions for leading confessional meetings" can be found in folder 1-5), emphasis on how the revival was the result of God's work, advice of Brandi Maguire and James Hahn, books being prepared about the Wheaton revival, surprise at the number of places that experienced revivals, some minor disappointments from his trips, need to be humble and accountable while talking about the revival, almost no memory of individual confessions, concern not to let the revival become a media circus, invitation to appear on the Donahue television interview program, favorable media coverage of the event, the effect of the revival on freshman who will arrive in the next school year, the last of the confessions.

T61 (30 minutes). Interview with Wheaton College senior Sara Henning by Robert Shuster. This was a follow-up on the interview on tape T32, done two years earlier. Topics discussed include: description of the events of March 1995, positive and negative attitudes toward the revival on campus, faculty attitudes, effect of the revival on community life, development of male and female accountability groups, ministry of the Church of the Resurrection, the revival as means for allowing people to be more free and honest in their life, the need to realize God's love for everyone regardless of their sin or lifestyle.

T62 (25 minutes). Interview with Wheaton College graduate student Keith Walker by Robert Shuster. This was a follow-up on the interview on tape T56, done in 1995. Topics discussed include: a summary of what happened during the revival in 1995, honesty of the people who confessed, the accountability group Walker was involved in, the revival as a traumatic event, effects of the revival on campus, negative responses, reactions to charismatic aspects of the revival, theological reactions to the revival, debate over the word "revival," participation by members of the Church of the Resurrection in follow-up to the revival, personal impact of the revival events on Walker, friendship with God, the revival as a source of hope for overcoming sin.

T63 (21 minutes). Interview with Wheaton College senior Rachel Christine Winn by Robert Shuster. This interview was a follow-up on the interview on tape T57, done in 1995. Topics discussed include: a summary of what happened in the revival, personal impact, creation of accountability groups, the development of a new understanding of the Wheaton community, changes in World Christian Fellowship, impact on campus ministries, negative reaction to the revival, visit of Bill Bright to campus, faculty reactions to revival, creation of a campus daily prayer vigil, more on the personal impact of the revival, comparison of the revival to a new born baby.

T64 (20 minutes). Interview with Wheaton College senior Mark Alexander Congdon by Robert Shuster. This interview was a follow-up on the interview on tape T13, done in 1995. Topics discussed include: a summary description of the revival, the work of Holy Spirit, attitude changes that occurred because of the revival, the decline of cynicism on campus, negative reactions, underclassmen's questions about the event, spectrum of reactions on campus to the revival, faculty reactions, questions and reactions of non-Wheaton (off campus) people, changes in WCF since the revival, accountability friendships, revival led to an abandonment of self sufficiency and isolation.

T65 (25 minutes). Interview with Wheaton College senior Jonathan Price Easterling by Robert Shuster. This interview was a follow-up on the interview on T19, done in 1995. Topics discussed include: description of the events of the revival, personal impact of revival, ways the revival confounded Easterling's expectations, genuineness of changes brought by the awakening, its impact on the way students interact, development of spiritual leaders on campus, desire of some people for a periodically reoccurring revival, freshman and sophmore views of the 1995 event, impact of the revival on faculty, relative lack of follow-up, influence on Easterling's perspective of being away from campus for a couple of years.

T66 (30 minutes). Interview with Wheaton College graduate Nathan Oates by Paul Ericksen. This was a follow-up to the interview on T42, recorded two years earlier. Topics discussed include: a description of the events of the week of March 1995, positive and negative attitudes toward the revival among the student body, positive impact of the revival on individual's lives more evident than on the overall campus, small group accountability groups as follow-up to the revival, Church of the Resurrection's offer to provide follow-up in areas of sexual sin and the College's initial reluctance to accept it, impact on him of the graphic depiction of the depth and power of sin, hatred for sin and the devil, and stimulus to personal holiness.

T67 (17 minutes). Interview with Wheaton College staff member Paul Arthur Ericksen by Robert Shuster. This was a follow-up to the interview on T23, recorded two years earlier. Topics discussed include: his description of what happened during the revival, the planting a of a tree to commemorate the event, no change in his opinion of revival, greater understanding of God's grace and a sense of His presence, less concern about public speaking, attendance at World Christian Fellowship meetings, more frequent prayer with his wife.

T68 (34 minutes). Interview with Mary Dorsett by Paul Ericksen. This was a follow-up to the interview on T16, recorded two years earlier. Topics discussed include: a summary of the events of the week of March 1995, the impact on students (ministry, accountability) and the College, greater impact on juniors and seniors, discipleship groups and increased sense of accountability, place of confession in an individual's life and local churches, limited participation by staff/faculty during week's meetings and in ongoing interaction, perceptions by 1995 freshmen of the revival, preponderance of women pursuing ministry, spontaneous and organized follow-up, impact on students' churches (locally and in their own communities), personal impact (need for ongoing confession, desire to be in accountable fellowship, greater commitment to Christ), desires for the future (the next revival, continuation of the revival's impact, and completed world evangelization)

T69 (35 minutes). Interview with Wheaton College graduate student [the WCF president] by Robert Shuster. This interview was a follow-up on the interview on tapes T58-T60, done in 1995. Topics discussed include: description of the events of the revival, spiritual preparation for the event, increased administrative sensitivity to student spiritual life, impact of the event on students, range of responses to the revival, revival at Philadelphia College of the Bible in 1997, lessons learned from the revival, revival not a norm for spiritual life, growing willingness of students to seek counseling, work of the Church of the Resurrection among homosexuals, revival as part of a movement toward holiness and missions across the country, preparation for the new millennium, seeing God do great things and being a part of them.

T70 (45 minutes). Interview with Wheaton College chaplain Stephen B. Kellough by Paul Ericksen. This was a follow-up to the interview on T34 and T35, recorded two years earlier. Topics discussed include: a description of the events during March 1995, the Thursday night celebration as a personal highlight for him, continuing interest about the revival, describing the revival to incoming students and new faculty, impressed by the faculty's favorable response, follow-up through informal accountability groups and discipleship small groups coordinated by the chaplain's office, personal impact greatest in his heightened awareness of needs of students, campus's increased appreciation for worship and chapel, Mario Bergner and Church of the Resurrection providing counseling afterward, hearing from other chaplains of greater divisiveness on other campuses in response to their revivals and his gratefulness for Wheaton's unified favorable response, scheduling chapel speakers and preparing his own messages in view of his new awareness of the breadth of student needs, keeping the revival in the broader context of related events prior to or subsequent to the week of meetings.

T71 (35 minutes). Interview with Wheaton College professor Lyle Dorsett by Paul Ericksen. This was a follow-up to the interview on T14 and T15, recorded two years earlier. Topics discussed include: primary lessons and impact of the events during March 1995 (unveiling of the extent of spiritual bondage, need for local churches' to provide safe environments in which to confess sin, transformed lives resulting in freedom from sin and service in Christian work, increased commitment to prayer, greater reverence on campus and in chapel), criticism he heard of the public confession and affirmation of Christian service, the value of the College administration's response, increased church attendance, examples of faculty and student criticism, case of student's change of heart about the revival, follow-up groups, College's restraint in sanctioning students who confessed pledge-breaking behavior, personal impact (adjusting two courses to emphasizing need for pastoral care in contemporary congregations, contemporary emphasis on psychologists and small groups to provide pastoral care, need for confession, need for repetition of Moody's emphasis on "personal work.")

T72 (25 minutes). Interview with Wheaton College staff member John Fawcett by Paul Ericksen. This was a follow-up to the interview on T24 and T25, recorded two years earlier. Topics discussed include: a summary of the events during March 1995 and their meaning, impact of the revival on students and the College "climate" (God's blessing on the College, greater spiritual emphasis, being protected from negative outcomes, a reduction of cynicism, interest in Christian service and spirituality), contribution to follow-up by Church of the Resurrection, faculty response to the revival, examples of student responses to the event as a whole and to their own confession and need, impact on him personally (initial skepticism being replaced by joy, increased ministry to students, being strengthened for ministry), impact of the revival on his church, prayer for more revival replaced by need for prayer for Spirit-powered evangelism to meet the deep needs of people.

T73 (27 minutes). Interview with Wheaton College staff member Kevin Engel by Robert Shuster. This was a follow-up to the interview on T21 and T22, recorded two years earlier. Topics discussed include: The revival as an intensification of normal Christian experiences in a brief period of time, changes in campus population since 1995, greater importance of accountability groups on campus, students more open to counseling, students more interested in the mystery of God, some people seem inoculated from the impact of the awakening, struggle as a continuing part of Christian life, different types of reactions to the revival, staff attitudes toward the revival, prayer ministries, growing student interest in the persecuted church and acceptance of the possibility of suffering and martyrdom, student led worship more common on Christian campuses, Engel's greater openness to God's spontaneity, positive and negative memories of the revival.

T74 (30 minutes). Interview with College Church college pastor Randall J. Gruendyke by Paul Ericksen. This was a follow-up to the interview on T28, recorded two years earlier. Topics discussed include: summary of the events during March 1995, commitment to full-time Christian service as expressed in recently commissioned student Scott Rideout, recollection of flag-waving during March 23 celebration service, ongoing impact at College Church and the college (increased Sunday school participation, setting up accountability pairs with older adults, diminished dissension and cynicism, impact on the college newspaper The Record, radio station WETN, and chapel services, increased stability in Sunday school participation), contribution of Church of the Resurrection, reactions to the revival, hearing accounts of unchanged students and the inability to forget confessed sin, attending College-sponsored meeting to anticipate revival-related issues during the following school year (minimal consideration given to the role of local churches, establishing discipleship small groups), College Church's follow-up program, comparing accountability group dynamics between fellow students or between students and older adults, significant impact on Gruendyke (chronology of events, deepened awareness of his own sinfulness and power of God's grace, emphasis on preaching Christ in his sermons since the revival), impact on college-age group size and seriousness.

T75 (15 minutes). Interview with Wheaton College president Duane Litfin by Robert Shuster. This was a follow-up to the interview on T38, recorded two years earlier. Topics discussed include: summary of the events during March 1995, spiritual impact of the revival on campus, range of response to the event among students and faculty, efforts at follow-up and counseling, attitudes toward the revivals of 1995 at other colleges, personal impact of the revival.

Related collections: The following collections in the BGC Archives also have information about revivals at Wheaton: 26, 116, 224, 225, 248, 290, 302, 519 (not yet processed as of 2/97), 521 (not yet processed as of 2/97), 522 (not yet processed as of 2/97), 524 (not yet processed as of 2/97). The Wheaton College Archives also contains a great deal of information on Wheaton revivals, particularly in its vertical file.

Provenance

The materials in this collection were given to the Archives of the Billy Graham Center by forty-six different individuals between December 1994 and October 1995. Additional interviews were taped in the spring of 1997.

Accession: 94-93, 94-100,95-5, 95-13, 95-23, 95-24, 95-25, 95-26, 95-31, 95-35, 95-40, 95-41, 95-44, 95-45, 95-46, 95-47, 95-48, 95-49, 95-50, 95-51, 95-53, 95-54, 95-55, 95-56, 95-59, 95-60, 95-62, 95-75, 95-78, 95-80, 95-82, 95-83, 95-85, 95-88, 95-97, 95-100, 95-146, 95-150, 95-162, 95-163, 95-164, 95-165, 95-166, 95-167, 95-168, 95-169, 95-170, 95-171, 95-172, 95-173, 95-174, 95-175, 95-176, 95-184, 97-9, 97-10, 97-13, 97-15, 97-17, 97-26, 97-29, 97-39, 97-40, 97-41, 97-42, 97-53, 97-71

March 13, 1997
Robert Shuster
M. Bergstedt

Revised July 3, 1997
Robert Shuster

Revised September 9, 1997
Robert Shuster




CHRONOLOGY OF SELECTED EVENTS REFERRED TO IN THE DOCUMENTS IN THIS COLLECTION
Year Month/Day Event
1936 2/6-7 Revival on Wheaton campus
1943 2/9-14 Revival on Wheaton campus
1950 2/6-13 Revival on Wheaton campus
1970 2/12-13 Revival on Wheaton campus
1995 1/26 Beginning of revival at Howard Payne University, Texas
1995 3/19 World Christian Fellowship worship service at Pierce Chapel on Wheaton campus at which Brandi Maguire and James Hahn from Howard Payne University spoke and the confessions began
1995 3/20-22 Continuing confessions meetings at Pierce (3/20) and College Church (21-22)
1995 3/23 Service of praise and dedication at College Church
1995 3/24 Gospel Choir concert on Wheaton campus
1995 3/29 Visit by Wheaton students to North Park College, Illinois
1995 4/3 Visit by Wheaton students to Northwestern College, Minnesota
1995 4/3 Visit by Wheaton students to Asbury College, Kentucky
1995 4/4 Visit by Wheaton students to Trinity International University, Illinois
1995 4/5 Visit by Wheaton students to Indiana Wesleyan College
1995 4/5 Visit by Wheaton students to Gordon College, Massachusetts
1995 4/8 Visit by Wheaton students to Cornerstone College, Michigan
1995 4/9 Visit by Wheaton students to Taylor University, Indiana
1995 4/9 Visit by Wheaton students to Judson College, Illinois
1995 4/9 Visit by Wheaton students to Hope College, Michigan
1995 4/10 Visit by Wheaton students to Iowa State University-Ames
1995 4/10 Visit by Wheaton students to George Fox College, Oregon
1995 4/11 Visit by Wheaton students to Multnomah School of the Bible , Oregon
1995 4/13 Visit by Wheaton students to Moody Bible Institute, Illinois
1995 4/20 Visit by Wheaton students to Messiah College, PA
1995 4/21 Visit by Wheaton students to Columbia University, NY
1995 4/22 Visit by Wheaton students to Yale University, Connecticut
1995 4/26 Visit by Wheaton students to Trinity Christian College, Illinois
1995 4/30 Visit by Wheaton students to Marion Avenue Baptist Church in Aurora, Illinois
1995 5/3 Visit by Wheaton students to Greenville College, Illinois

*****
CHRONOLOGY OF THE TAPING OF THE 1995 INTERVIEWS IN THIS COLLECTION
2/6 T30, T36
2/11 T55
2/13 T45
2/14 T6
2/16 T48
2/17 T44
2/21 T31
3/21 T13
3/22 T32
3/23 T23, T29
3/24 T16, T28
3/27 T24, T25, T26, T27, T58, T59
3/29 T9, T10, T19, T21, T22
3/31 T34, T35
4/11 T40, T41
4/13 T38, T52, T53
4/28 T42
5/2 T20
5/3 T7, T8
5/10 T4, T5
6/5 T56
6/6 T11, T49, T51, T60
6/8 T33, T37, T47
6/10 T12, T39, T46, T50, T54
6/11 T17, T18
6/13 T43, T57
6/21 T14, T15



LOCATION RECORD
Accession: 94-100, 95-5, 95-13, 95-23, 95-24, 95-25, 95-26, 95-31, 95-35, 95-40, 95-41, 95-44, 95-45, 95-46, 95-47, 95-48, 95-49, 95-50, 95-51, 95-53, 95-54, 95-55, 95-56, 95-59, 95-60, 95-62, 95-78, 95-80, 95-82, 95-83, 95-88, 95-97, 95-162, 95-163, 95-164, 95-165, 95-166, 95-167, 95-168, 95-169, 95-170, 95-171, 95-172, 95-173, 95-174, 95-175, 95-176, 95-184, 97-10, 97-13, 97-15, 97-17, 97-26, 97-29. 97-39, 97-40. 97-41, 97-42, 97-53, 97-71
Type of Material: Audio Tapes

The following items are located in the AUDIO TAPE FILE:


T1 - Reel, 3-3/4 ips, 1 side. Anne Ortlund's report on the Wheaton revival of 1970 given at her home church, Lake Avenue Congregational Church, Pasadena, California, the Sunday evening after the awakening. Copy made for Archives and original cassette returned to Ortlund. 35 minutes.

T2 - Reel 3-3/4 ips, 1 side. Portion of the March 23, 1995 revival service. Approximately 73 minutes.

T3 - Reel 3-3/4 ips, 1 side. Continuation of T3. March 23, 1995. Approximately 23 minutes.

T4 - Reel 3-3/4 ips, 1 side. Interview of Hudson Taylor Armerding by Paul Ericksen. May 10, 1995. 72 minutes.

T5 - Reel 3-3/4 ips, 1 side. Interview of Hudson Taylor Armerding by Paul Ericksen. May 10, 1995. 16 minutes.

T6 - Reel, 3-3/4 ips, 1 side. Interview of John H. Armstrong by Wheaton College student Jeff Gilliam. February 14, 1995. 30 minutes.

T7 - Reel, 3-3/4 ips, 1 side. Interview of Holly Bell by Paul Ericksen. May 3, 1995. Approximately 41 minutes.

T8 - Reel, 3-3/4 ips, 1 side. Interview of Patrick Bell by Paul Ericksen. May 3, 1995. Approximately 59 minutes.

T9 - Reel, 3-3/4 ips, 1 side. Interview of Timothy Beougher by Paul Ericksen. March 29, 1995. Approximately 70 minutes.

T10 - Reel, 3-3/4 ips, 1 side. Conclusion of interview of Timothy Beougher by Paul Ericksen. March 29, 1995. Approximately 27 minutes.

T11 - Reel, 3-3/4 ips, 1 side. Interview of Timothy Beougher by [the WCF president]. June 6, 1995. Approximately 23 minutes. Original interview was recorded on a cassette tape and later transferred to reel by Archives staff.

T12 - Reel, 3-3/4 ips, 1 side. Interview of John Chung by [the WCF president]. June 10, 1995. Approximately 49 minutes. Original interview was recorded on a cassette tape and later transferred to reel by Archives staff.

T13 - Reel, 3-3/4 ips, 1 side. Interview of Mark Congdon by Paul Ericksen. March 21, 1995. Approximately 48 minutes.

T14 - Reel, 3-3/4 ips, 1 side. Interview of Lyle Dorsett by Paul Ericksen. June 21, 1995. Approximately 73 minutes.

T15 - Reel, 3-3/4 ips, 1 side. Conclusion of interview of Lyle Dorsett by Paul Ericksen. June 21, 1995. Approximately 9 minutes.

T16 - Reel, 3-3/4 ips, 1 side. Interview of Mary Dorsett by Paul Ericksen. March 24, 1995. Approximately 65 minutes.

T17 - Reel, 3-3/4 ips, 1 side. Interview with David Dummitt by [the WCF president]. June 11, 1995. Approximately 50 minutes. Original interview was recorded on a cassette tape and later transferred to reel by Archives staff.

T18 - Reel, 3-3/4 ips, 1 side. Interview with Joel Dylhoff by [the WCF president]. June 11, 1995. Approximately 7 minutes. At the end of the tape is a very brief fragment of an interview with Jason Falk. Original interview was recorded on a cassette tape and later transferred to reel by Archives staff.

T19 - Reel, 3-3/4 ips, 1 side. Interview with Jonathan Price Easterling by Robert Shuster. March 29, 1995. Approximately 36 minutes.

T20 - Reel, 3-3/4 ips, 1 side. Interview with Mark Elliott by Robert Shuster. May 2, 1995. Approximately 66 minutes.

T21 - Reel, 3-3/4 ips, 1 side. Interview of Kevin Engel by Robert Shuster. March 29, 1995. Approximately 75 minutes. Original interview was recorded on a cassette tape and later transferred to reel by Archives staff.

T22 - Reel, 3-3/4 ips, 1 side. Conclusion of interview of Kevin Engel by Robert Shuster. March 29, 1995. Approximately 20 minutes. Original interview was recorded on a cassette tape and later transferred to reel by Archives staff.

T23 - Reel, 3-3/4 ips, 1 side. Interview of Paul Ericksen by Robert Shuster. March 23, 1995. Approximately 45 minutes.

T24 - Reel, 3-3/4 ips, 1 side. Interview of John Fawcett by Robert Shuster. March 27, 1995. Approximately 75 minutes. Original interview was recorded on a cassette tape and later transferred to reel by Archives staff.

T25 - Reel, 3-3/4 ips, 1 side. Conclusion of interview of John Fawcett by Robert Shuster. March 27, 1995. Approximately 8 minutes. Original interview was recorded on a cassette tape and later transferred to reel by Archives staff.

T26 - Reel, 3-3/4 ips, 1 side. Interview of Nathanael Fawcett by Paul Ericksen. March 27, 1995. Approximately 68 minutes.

T27 - Reel, 3-3/4 ips, 1 side. Conclusion interview of Nathanael Fawcett by Paul Ericksen. March 27, 1995. Approximately 31 minutes.

T28 - Reel, 3-3/4 ips, 1 side. Interview of Randall J. Gruendyke by Robert Shuster. March 24, 1995. Approximately 68 minutes. Original interview was recorded on a cassette tape and later transferred to reel by Archives staff.

T29 - Reel, 3-3/4 ips, 1 side. Interview of Timothy Harder by Robert Shuster. March 23, 1995, Approximately 24 minutes.

T30 - Reel, 3-3/4 ips, 1 side. Interview of Warren Hayes by Scott Lawrence Ruschak. February 6, 1995. Approximately 62 minutes. Original interview was recorded on a cassette tape and later transferred to reel by Archives staff.

T31 - Reel, 3-3/4 ips, 1 side. Interview of Mertis Heimbach by Robert Roberts. February 21, 1995. Approximately 25 minutes. Original interview was recorded on a cassette tape and later transferred to reel by Archives staff.

T32 - Reel, 3-3/4 ips, 1 side. Interview of Sara Henning by Paul Ericksen. March 22. 1995. Approximately 65 minutes.

T33 - Reel, 3-3/4 ips, 1 side. Interview of Hutz Hertzberg by [the WCF president]. June 8, 1995. Approximately 29 minutes.

T34 - Reel, 3-3/4 ips, 1 side. Interview of Stephen Kellough by Paul Ericksen. March 31, 1995. Approximately 62 minutes.

T35 - Reel, 3-3/4 ips, 1 side. Conclusion of interview of Stephen Kellough by Paul Ericksen. March 31, 1995. Approximately 20 minutes.

T36 - Reel, 3-3/4 ips, 1 side. Interview of Betty R. (Burtness) Knoedler by Virginia Hope Feldmann. February 6, 1995. Approximately 44 minutes. Original interview was recorded on a cassette tape and later transferred to reel by Archives staff.

T37 - Reel, 3-3/4 ips, 1 side. Interview of Gregg Lamm by [the WCF president]. June 8, 1995. Approximately 23 minutes. Original interview was recorded over the phone on a cassette tape and later transferred to reel by Archives staff.

T38 - Reel, 3-3/4 ips, 1 side. Interview of Duane Litfin by Robert Shuster. April 13, 1995. Approximately 22 minutes. Original interview was recorded over the phone on a cassette tape and later transferred to reel by Archives staff.

T39 - Reel, 3-3/4 ips, 1 side. Interview of Claudia Lopez by [the WCF president]. June 10, 1995. Approximately 16 minutes. Original interview was recorded on a cassette tape and later transferred to reel by Archives staff.

T40 - Reel, 3-3/4 ips (except for the very beginning of the tape, which is recorded at 7-1/2 ips), 1 side. Interview of Penny Mason by Robert Shuster. April 11, 1995. Approximately 66 minutes.

T41 - Reel, 3-3/4 ips, 1 side. Conclusion of interview of Penny Mason by Robert Shuster. April 11, 1995. Approximately 25 minutes.

T42 - Reel, 3-3/4 ips, 1 side. Interview of Wheaton College senior Nathan Oates by Paul A. Ericksen. April 28, 1995. Approximately 65 minutes. Original interview was recorded on a cassette tape and later transferred to reel by Archives staff.

T43 - Reel, 3-3/4 ips, 1 side. Interview of Amarachukwu C. Okoroafor by [the WCF president]. June 13, 1995. Approximately 20 minutes. Original interview was recorded on a cassette tape and later transferred to reel by Archives staff.

T44 - Reel, 3-3/4 ips, 1 side. Interview of Raymond C. Ortlund Jr. by Timothy Belding. February 17, 1995. 45 minutes. Original interview was recorded over the phone on a cassette tape and later transferred to reel by Archives staff.

T45 - Reel, 3-3/4 ips, 1 side. Interview of Raymond Sr. and Anna Ortlund by [the WCF president]. February 13, 1995. 35 minutes. Original interview was recorded over the phone on a cassette tape and later transferred to reel by Archives staff.

T46 - Reel, 3-3/4 ips, 1 side. Interview with Michael Anthony Paolicelli by [the WCF president]. June 10, 1995. Approximately 13 minutes. Original interview was recorded over the phone on a cassette tape and later transferred to reel by Archives staff.

T47 - Reel, 3-3/4 ips, 1 side. Interview with Benjamin Patterson by [the WCF president]. June 8, 1995. Approximately 26 minutes. Original interview was recorded over the phone on a cassette tape and later transferred to reel by Archives staff.

T48 - Reel, 3-3/4 ips, 1 side. Interview of Leroy H. Pfund by Douglas Sean O'Donnell. February 16, 1995. Approximately 34 minutes. Original interview was recorded on a cassette tape and later transferred to reel by Archives staff.

T49 - Reel, 3-3/4 ips, 1 side. Interview of Scott Polender by [the WCF president]. June 6, 1995. Approximately 53 minutes. Original interview was recorded on a cassette tape and later transferred to reel by Archives staff.

T50 - Reel, 3-3/4 ips, 1 side. Interview of Eric Sanzone by [the WCF president]. June 10, 1995. Approximately 12 minutes. Original interview was recorded on a cassette tape and later transferred to reel by Archives staff.

T51 - Reel, 3-3/4 ips, 1 side. Interview of Elizabeth Simpson by [the WCF president]. June 6, 1995. Approximately 47 minutes. Original interview was recorded on a cassette tape and later transferred to reel by Archives staff.

T52 - Reel, 3-3/4 ips, 1 side. Interview of Donald Smarto by Robert Shuster. April 13, 1995. Approximately 74 minutes.

T53 - Reel, 3-3/4 ips, 1 side. Conclusion of interview of Donald Smarto by Robert Shuster. April 13, 1995. Approximately 25 minutes.

T54 - Reel, 3-3/4 ips, 1 side. Interview of David Terry by [the WCF president]. June 10, 1995. Approximately 15 minutes. Original interview was recorded on a cassette tape and later transferred to reel by Archives staff.

T55 - Reel, 3-3/4 ips, 1 side. Interview of Robert C. Urquhart by Daniel Olson. February 11, 1995. Approximately 43 minutes. Original interview was recorded on a cassette tape and later transferred to reel by Archives staff.

T56 - Reel, 3-3/4 ips, 1 side. Interview of Keith Walker by [the WCF president]. June 5, 1995. Approximately 26 minutes. Original interview was recorded on a cassette tape and later transferred to reel by Archives staff.

T57 - Reel, 3-3/4 ips, 1 side. Interview of Rachael Winn by [the WCF president]. June 13, 1995. Approximately 15 minutes. Original interview was recorded over the phone on a cassette tape and later transferred to reel by Archives staff.

T58 - Reel, 3-3/4 ips, 1 side. Interview of [the WCF president] by Paul Ericksen. March 27, 1995. Approximately 70 minutes.

T59 - Reel, 3-3/4 ips, 1 side. Conclusion of interview of [the WCF president] by Paul Ericksen on tape T58. March 27, 1995. Approximately 23 minutes.

T60 - Reel, 3-3/4 ips, 1 side. Interview of [the WCF president] by Paul Ericksen. June 6, 1995. Approximately 70 minutes.

T61 - Reel, 3-3/4 ips, 1 side. Interview of Sara Henning by Robert Shuster. March 13, 1997. 30 minutes.

T62 - Reel, 3-3/4 ips, 1 side. Interview of Keith Walker by Robert Shuster. March 15, 1997. 25 minutes.

T63 - Reel, 3-3/4 ips, 1 side. Interview of Rachel Winn by Robert Shuster. March 21, 1997. 21 minutes.

T64 - Reel, 3-3/4 ips, 1 side. Interview of Mark Congdon by Robert Shuster. March 24, 1997. 20 minutes.

T65 - Reel, 3-3/4 ips, 1 side. Interview of Jonathan Easterling by Robert Shuster. March 27, 1997. 25 minutes.

T66 - Reel, 3-3/4 ips, 1 side. Interview of Nathan Oates by Paul Ericksen. April 15, 1997. 30 minutes.

T67 - Reel, 3-3/4 ips, 1 side. Interview of Paul Ericksen by Robert Shuster. April 22, 1997. 17 minutes.

T68 - Reel, 3-3/4 ips, 1 side. Interview of Mary Dorsett by Paul Ericksen. June 20, 1997. Approximately 34 minutes.

T69 - Reel, 3 3/4 ips, 1 side. Interview of [the WCF president] by Robert Shuster. May 8, 1997. 35 minutes.

T70 - Reel, 3-3/4 ips, 1 side. Interview of Stephen B. Kellough by Paul Ericksen. May 15, 1997. Approximately 45 minutes.

T71 - Reel, 3-3/4 ips, 1 side. Interview of Lyle Dorsett by Paul Ericksen. May 15, 1997. Approximately 35 minutes.

T72 - Reel, 3-3/4 ips, 1 side. Interview of John Fawcett by Paul Ericksen. May 15, 1997. Approximately 25 minutes.

T73 - Reel, 3-3/4 ips, 1 side. Interview of Kevin Engel by Robert Shuster. May 16, 1997. Approximately 27 minutes. Original interview was recorded over the phone on a cassette tape and later transferred to reel by Archives staff.

T74 - Reel, 3-3/4 ips, 1 side. Interview of Randall J. Gruendyke by Paul Ericksen. May 27, 1997. Approximately 30 minutes.

T75 - Reel, 3-3/4 ips, 1 side. Interview of Duane Litfin by Robert Shuster. September 9, 1997. Approximately 15 minutes. Original interview was recorded over the phone on a cassette tape and later transferred to reel by Archives staff.


*****
LOCATION RECORD
Accession: 95-100
Type of material: Videotape

The following items are located in the VIDEOTAPE FILE:


The Archives' video masters V1 through V5 are copies made from the VHS originals made by Patrick Bell under circumstances he describes on tape T8. The viewing copies of the videos described below are on VHS cassettes. V1 and V2 are on one, V3 and the first half of V4 on another, and the last half of V4 plus V5 on a third. Researchers should request V1/V2, V3/V4 or V4/V5.

V1 - Color, 3/4 inch U-matic cassette. Raw footage of the World Christian Fellowship meeting which developed into the Wheaton revival on Sunday, March 19, 1995. The meeting was held in Pierce Chapel on Wheaton College campus. The video shows [the WCF president], a WCF officer, leading the meeting, singing, prayer time, announcements, and then comments by Brandi Maguire and James Hahn, two students from Howard Payne University in Texas, who reported on a revival on that campus. The tapes ends before Hahn has finished speaking. The video is approximately 63 minutes. Researchers should request V1/V2.

Restricted V2 - Color, 3/4 inch U-matic cassette. Raw footage of the World Christian Fellowship meeting which developed into the Wheaton revival on Sunday, March 19, 1995. The service was at the College's Pierce Chapel. Video begins a brief time after V1 ended, with Hahn still speaking. [The WCF president] then stands up to speak and lead in prayer. Following prayer, members of the audience start coming forward to confess sins. Note: This video was accepted under the restriction that the portions of it containing confessions of sin may not be used by researchers until the year 2070. Therefore the viewing copy available for use in the Archives Reading Room in some places has had the sound track removed, in other places both the sound and video portions. The original video is approximately 14 minutes. The viewing copy has had approximately 5-3/4 minutes of either sound or sound and video removed. Researchers should request V1/V2.

Restricted V3 - Color, 3/4 inch U-matic cassette. Raw footage of the second evening service of the Wheaton revival on Monday, March 20, 1995. The service was at the College's Pierce Chapel. Program includes prayer by College chaplain Stephen Kellough, congregational singing, comments by [the WCF president], testimonies, confession of sins by individuals, the collection of physical items that lead people to sin, prayer time, comments by Christian Service Council staff member Kevin Engel, continuing confessions. Note: This video was accepted under the restriction that the portions of it containing confessions of sin may not be used by researchers until the year 2070. Therefore the viewing copy available for use in the Archives Reading Room in some places has had the sound track removed, in other places both the sound and video portions. The original video is approximately 62 minutes. The viewing copy has had approximately 3 minutes of either sound or sound and video removed. Researchers should request V3/V4 or V4/V5.

Restricted V4 - Color, 3/4 inch U-matic cassette. Raw footage of the second and third evening services of the Wheaton revival on Monday and Tuesday, March 20 and 21, 1995. The service on March 21 was at the College Church of Wheaton. The first seventeen minutes are of the program on March 20 includes continuing confession, comments by [the WCF president], prayer by Wheaton professor Lyle Dorsett, and congregational singing. The footage for the March 21 service begins with congregational singing, comments by [the WCF president] and Claudia Lopez. Note: This video was accepted under the restriction that the portions of it containing confessions of sin may not be used by researchers until the year 2070. Therefore the viewing copy available for use in the Archives Reading Room in some places has had the sound track removed, in other places both the sound and video portions. The original video is approximately 59 minutes. The viewing copy has had approximately 4 minutes of either sound or sound and video removed.

Restricted V5 - Color, 3/4 inch U-matic cassette. Raw footage of the third evening services of the Wheaton revival on Monday and Tuesday, March 21, 1995. The service on March 21 was at the College Church of Wheaton. This tape continues a few minutes after the end of V4. Included are scenes of Scripture reading, congregational singing, comments by Christian Service Council staff member Kevin Engel, prayer, and confessions. Note: This video was accepted under the restriction that the portions of it containing confessions of sin may not be used by researchers until the year 2070. Therefore the viewing copy available for use in the Archives reading Room in some places has had the sound track removed, in other places both the sound and video portions. The original video is approximately 16 minutes. The viewing copy has had approximately 2 minutes of either sound or sound and video removed. Researchers should request V4/V5.




CONTAINER LIST
Box Folder Item
1 1 1936 Revival - Hillis Report, n.d.
1950 Revival
1 2 Ebersole Letter, 1950
1 3 Hayes Report, 1995
1995 Revival
1 4 E-mail messages, 1995
1 5 Miscellaneous, 1995
1 6 Reports, 1995
1 7 Testimonies, 1995
Revival Project
1 8 Class papers, 1995
1 9 Miscellaneous, 1994-1995
1 10 Questionnaires, 1994-1995



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Last Revised: 10/11/04
Expiration: indefinite