Billy Graham Center
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Papers of Jennie Kingston Fitzwilliam - Collection 272

[Note: What follows is a description of the documents in this collection which are available for use at BGC Archives in Wheaton, Illinois, USA. The actual documents are not, in most cases, available online, only this description of them. Nor are they available for sale or rent. Some or all of this collection can be borrowed through interlibrary loan. ]

Table of Contents

Brief Description of This Collection

Title Page and Restrictions

Biography of Jennie Fitzwilliam

An Essay on the Contents of the Collection (Scope and Content)

Lists of Audio Tapes, Photographs, and Slides in This Collection (Location Records)
    Audio Tapes
    Photographs
    Slides
List of the Contents of Boxes of Paper Records in This Collection (Container List)
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Transcript 1

Transcript 2

Transcript 3

Transcript 4

Transcript 5



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Brief Description.
Letters with some translation, photographs, a Lisu translation of the New Testament, combined catechism and hymnbook in the Atsi Kachin language, and four oral history interviews recorded in 1984, all related to Fitzwilliam's mission work with Overseas Missionary Fellowship (formerly China Inland Mission) among the Lisu and Kachin peoples in southern China along the Burmese border. Included are recollections of Fitzwilliam's husband, Francis, J.O. Fraser and the early history of missionary work among the Lisu, life of the Lisu church and its indigenous administrative practices, the development of mission work among the Kachin, and her interment by the Japanese. Interviews were recorded on 6/13/84, 6/21/84, 7/12/84 and 10/31/85. This is part of the Missionary Sources Collection. There are restrictions on the use of this collection.



Collection 272 [October 3, 2005]
Fitzwilliam, Jennie Kingston; 1903-2003
Papers & Interviews; 1926-1950, 1984, 1985, n.d.
1 Box (DC; .2 cubic feet) Audio Tapes, Photographs and Slides

Restrictions

There are no restrictions on the use of this collection.


Biography

Jennie Kingston Fitzwilliam was born in Newberry, Massechusetts, on April 19, 1903. In 1925 she graduated from Moody Bible Institute's missionary course. She applied to become a member of the China Inland Mission (CIM, later renamed the Overseas Missionary Fellowship) and was accepted. Prior to her departure, she became engaged to Francis Julius Fitzwilliam, who had also applied to CIM and whom she had known at Moody. She traveled to China in late 1926 and began language training at the women's language school in Yangzhou, Jiangsu Province. Her language study was interrupted by the political unrest in China and she, along with most other CIM workers, was evacuated to Shanghai. In 1927 she and Fitzwilliam, who had been evacuated to Shanghai from the men's language school, were married.

The Fitzwilliams were assigned by the mission to work among the Lisu tribe in Yunnan Province, and initially lived in Tengyueh (new name, Tengchong) to complete their Chinese language study. While in Tengchong, the Fitzwilliams had their only son, Francis John. In late 1929, they transferred to the Lisu village of Muchengpo to begin their Lisu language work. Throughout their first term among the Lisu, the Fitzwilliams principally served as Bible teachers and consultants to the church. Returning from furlough in 1935, they began working among the Atsi Kachin, another tribal people located along the Burmese border, and lived in Lungch'iu. Lungch'iu was a town comprised of both Lisu and Kachin, and the Fitzwilliams divided their work among the two groups. Their work with the Kachin included evangelistic work, translation of the Atsi Kachin language and the development of a catechism for use with new converts. In 1940, Mr. Fitzwilliam died from typhus. Mrs. Fitzwilliam took a short leave to visit her son at the mission's Chefoo School in Chefoo (new name, Yantai) in Shantung Province (new name, Shandong Province). Fitzwilliam was prevented from returning to Yunnan by intensified Japanese activity in that area, and was reassigned to work in the preparatory school at Chefoo School.

On December 8, 1941, Fitzwilliam and all the other staff and children at the school were placed under house arrest by the Japanese. In 1942, they were transferred to Temple Hill, a former Presbyterian mission station, also in Yantai. In 1943, they were transferred to the Weihsein internment camp, in Weihsien (new name, Wei Xian), Shandong Province. Fitzwilliam and the other Americans, in the process of being repatriated, were at Wei Xian only several weeks, after which they sailed to Goa, on the west coast of India, where they were exchanged.

Upon her return to the United States, Fitzwilliam joined with several other CIM staff who had been repatriated to operate the temporary youth hostel set up for CIM children who had been repatriated, but whose parents remained in China. With the return of these parents in the course of the following year, the school was dissolved. Fitzwilliam then moved to Wheaton, IL, where she worked at Wheaton College in the accounting department while her son completed his high school education. In 1949 she was reactivated by the mission and began deputation work, intending to return to China. She was prevented from doing so by the Communists' takeover of China and the subsequent expulsion of CIM from the country and returned to the accounting department of the college. In 1952 Fitzwilliam became the Dean of Women at the Philadelphia Bible Institute, where she remained until 1957. Returning to the accounting department of Wheaton College, she continued to work there until her retirement in 1969. Following her retirement, she worked for Medical Assistance Program (MAP). She died on April 7, 2003 in her home at Windsor Manor retirement home in Carol Stream, Illinois.


Scope and Content

The materials in this collection consist of an Atsi Kachin catechism, a Lisu New Testament, letters in Lisu with some translation, an issue of China's Millions, which contains testimonies by Mr. and Mrs. Fitzwilliam, and oral history interviews. The folders are arranged alphabetically by type of document, i.e., catechism, letters, New Testament, etc. This arrangement was provided by the archivist. With the exception of the interviews, the documents provide a sketchy glimpse of Fitzwilliam's missionary career. They are more largely illustrative of the written scripts of the languages the Fitzwilliams worked in.

A first interview was conducted with Jennie Kingston Fitzwillam by Paul Ericksen on May 17, 1984, at the offices of the Billy Graham Center Archives. Technical difficulties rendered the recording inaudible. Subsequent interviews of Mrs. Fitzwilliam were conducted by Ericksen on June 13, June 21, July 12, 1984, and October 31, 1985. Due to the complications of the first interview, the material covered in T1 chronologically follows that of T2. The time periods covered in the interviews are as follows: T1: 1927-c.1935; T2: 1903-1969; T3 & T4: c.1928-1943; T5: 1941-1943.

Time elapsed in minutes and seconds is recorded to the left of the topics discussed in the interview. This index is keyed to the cassette copy of the interview, not the reel-to-reel original.

Tape T1 - side 1
00:00 Beginning of tape
01:15 Introduction
01:30 Review of first interview
02:20 Women's language school began in Yangzhou but was later evacuated to Shanghai.
03:00 The evacuation became a year and a half stay
03:15 Mission policy required 2 years service before marriage. The Mission relaxed the policy to one year during the extended stay of many workers in Shanghai. The Fitzwilliams were married during that time
03:45 J.O. Fraser, who began CIM work among the Lisu, was appointed the Mission superintendent of Yunnan Province, and took the Fitzwilliams and Castos there, around China by sea and up through Burma to Tengchong to study Chinese and take language exams
04:30 The party traveled to "Lisu land", five days journey south from Tengchong at Christmas-time, 1929. The Gowmans were the senior missionaries there
05:00 The Fitzwilliams settled among the Lisu in Muchengpo. Mr. Gowman died, Mrs. Gowman returned home, and the Fitzwilliams carried on the work
05:45 Division of responsibility between the missionaries and the Lisu. The Lisu, not the missionaries, were the evangelists. The missionaries were responsible to conduct short term Bible schools, lasting several weeks.
06:30 Geographical coverage of the ministry. Lisu volunteers carried the Gospel into the Northern Salween area
06:45 Isobel and John Kuhn took up ministry in Northern Salween area
07:40 The Fitzwilliams felt privileged to work among the Lisu
07:45 Description of the Lisu: the aborigines of China
08:00 The effects of conversion on the Lisu. Most impressed by God's love for them
08:15 Spirit worship in the non-Christian Lisu. Worship out of fear. Examples of the Lisu world view
08:45 The Lisu were struck by God's love for them.
09:15 The Lisu turned to Christianity in families and villages. If an entire village did not turn to Christ, the new Christians set up a Christian village. The converted Lisu tended to live in Christian villages
09:30 The Lisu built their chapel at the village's center. Description of a chapel
10:00 No outside funding for the Lisu church
10:15 Indigenous ministry. J.O. Fraser's exerted a strong influence by applying indigenous principles: the work was the responsibility of the Lisu
11:15 Thorough evangelization of the region. The Lisu supported their own evangelists, who were called pastors because work was often among Christian Lisu
12:00 Poverty did not prevent Lisu support of ministry, Lisu generosity.
12:30 Incident of a Lisu man giving rice as an offering.
13:15 The Lisu sacrificed to give, their gifts consisting of produce and livestock
14:00 The Lisu love to study. Almost all learned to read and write.
14:45 The Lisu run their own church, inviting the missionaries to serve as consultants in church meetings
15:15 Church discipline. A couple was whipped for committing adultery
16:00 The Lisu were strict about observing the Sabbath and giving
16:45 Fraser's principles for sacrificial giving
17:15 Typical Sunday schedule: consisted of numerous services
18:00 Musical ability and enthusiasm of the Lisu.
19:15 Music in the worship services
19:30 Missionaries' contribution to the services, description of Sunday schedule
20:00 (Inaudible section - very faint)
21:15 Sunday afternoon service (faint)
22:00 Responsibilities in the church: initially held only by the men, but gradually assumed by the women as well. Lisu women at first would disrupt the service
23:45 Lisu services were similar to Western church services: singing, prayer, sermon
24:15 Lisu speakers occasionally backed out from responsibilities at the last minute; the Fitzwilliams took over for them at the request of the church leaders
25:15 Mrs. Fitzwilliam's speaking during service characterized as a Bible study.
26:00 Lisu preparation for sermons with the Fitzwilliams
26:45 Fitzwilliams' ministry entirely with Christians; minimal contact with non-Christians when working among the Lisu
27:00 Lisu responsibility for ministry among their unevangelized; Westerners would have been too much of an oddity to be effective
28:15 The Lisu decision for or against Christ
29:30 The Lisu became more aggressive in reaching other tribes with the Gospel
30:15 Work among the Lisu and Kachin villages. Lisu would accompany the Fitzwilliams to the Kachin villages
31:00 Background on the Lisu: geographical origins and geographical location
32:15 Lisu physical features.
32:30 Lisu dress
32:45 Lisu physical characteristics
33:15 End of side 1

Tape T1 - side 2
00:00 Beginning of tape
00:05 Overlap from side 1
01:00 Relationship between Lisu and Chinese, Lisu dislike of the Chinese.
02:00 Lisu spiritual concern for and witness to the Chinese
03:00 Lisu use of Chinese. Lisu school for learning Chinese. Education of Lisu children was geared to prepare them to live in Chinese culture
05:15 A Lisu able to speak Chinese was accorded greater status by the Chinese
05:30 Description of the Chinese
06:15 Christian Lisu/Christian Chinese gatherings
08:00 Description of Muchengpo
08:15 Description of the missionary homes among the Lisu and Kachin
08:45 Descriptions of Lisu and Kachin homes
11:30 Conveniences missed on the mission field
11:45 Replenishing food supplies
12:45 The Lisu diet
14:30 Lisu hunting. Humorous incident of Lisu hunting deer
15:15 The Lisu diet
16:15 Lisu fishing using a herb which knocks the fish out
17:15 Cooking procedures
18:15 Fitzwilliams had Lisu cook
18:45 The Lisu diet. Very few sweets
19:45 How J.O. Fraser started the CIM work among the Lisu
20:15 Lisu resistance to the Gospel and the impact of prayer on their conversion. The tribe turned to Christianity in large groups
21:45 Degree of Lisu Christianization at the time of the Fitzwilliams' arrival
22:00 Description of Lisu civil government: church leaders were the civil leaders
23:00 Security of the villages
23:45 Primitive yet effective discipline
24:15 Annual meeting of district deacons. Role of the church deacons in discipline. More strict than missionaries would have been
25:30 Case of traditional custom of chewing beetlenut: decided against by church leadership rather than missionary.
26:30 Other expected behaviors.
27:15 Size and location of Lisu villages
28:00 Lisu pre-Christian religion
28:15 The role of spirits in Lisu religion
28:45 The pre-Christian Lisu word for God retained by Christian Lisu. Word represented a good ultimate being who had little interest in the Lisu
29:30 Lisu traditions of the creation and the flood
30:00 The Lisu tradition of a promised white man to come with a book. Fraser coming with the Gospel and the teaching to read and write seemed to be a fulfillment of that expectation.
30:30 Pagan religion: based on fear with little comfort
31:00 Impact of God's love and the Holy Spirit on the Lisu
31:30 Mr. Fitzwilliam's travels through various Lisu areas for Bible schools
32:00 Lisu accommodations for traveling missionaries
32:30 Means of travel: horses
32:45 Lisu gift of a horse to Mrs. Fitzwilliam
33:30 End of tape

Tape T1 - side 3
00:00 Beginning of tape
00:05 Overlap from side 2
04:45 Continued description of incident where Mrs. Fitzwilliam was given a horse
05:00 The Lisu mode of travel
05:15 Terrain in which the Lisu lived called the Switzerland of China, roads
06:30 Missionaries always traveled accompanied by Lisu
07:00 A typical Fitzwilliams' work day. Available to the Lisu
08:00 Lisu had few activities after dark except for services and at harvest time
08:45 End of tape

Tape T2 - side 1.
00:00 Beginning of tape
01:15 Introduction
01:30 Born in Newberry, MA in 1903. Grew up and educated in Massechusetts
03:30 Beginnings of her spiritual pilgrimage. Family religious customs
04:00 Going forward in a meeting to dedicate her life to the Lord
04:15 Involved in a Sunday afternoon Sunday school class. Assisted by a Baptist pastor, who influenced Kingston to go to Moody Bible Institute for its missionary course
05:30 Met her first missionary at Moody.
05:45 Church background: Advent Christian Church, little missions emphasis
06:00 Learned more about missions from Rev. George Kohl, a Moody graduate and pastor of the Baptist church Kingston attended
06:45 Moody Bible Institute's influence on Kingston
07:30 Original intent to work as a missionary in Africa. Thoughts were redirected to China, although uncertain about how. Involved in a China prayer group
08:00 Desire to go to China nurtured by Isaac Page, China Inland Mission's (CIM) regional representative in Chicago. Description of Page's work and influence. Page cautioned students about obstacles to Christian service
09:30 Application to CIM during last term at Moody
09:45 Relationship with Fitzwilliam
10:15 Fitzwilliam's application to CIM during his final term at Moody
10:30 Kingston invited to Toronto by the CIM Council and accepted by mission
11:00 Sense of privilege in joining CIM
11:45 Returned home until her fall departure to China
12:15 Following his acceptance by CIM, Fitzwilliam came to the Kingstons' home and he and Kingston became engaged
12:30 Description of CIM's regulation about marriage and first two years of work
13:00 Traveled to China with other new women candidates. Stayed at the CIM International headquarters in Shanghai, and then was escorted to language school in Yangzhou
14:00 Chiang Kai-Shek's Communist armies came through the area in 1927; all the missionaries in the interior were evacuated to Shanghai.
15:00 Political/military change in the area due to Chiang's renunciation of Communism and the gradual return of missionaries to their stations
15:15 With the large number of single workers in Shanghai with pending marriages, CIM reduced its restriction on marriage from two years to one year. Fitzwilliam and Kingston were then married
15:30 Enthused about designation to the Lisu work. CIM's method of designation
16:30 Escorted by Fraser through Singapore, Rangoon, and rural Burma into China
16:45 Initially stationed in Tengchong to do language study in on Chinese. CIM required workers among tribal groups to be able to communicate in Chinese, even though their principle work was not to be among them.
17:15 The birth of Jack Fitzwilliam
17:30 Description of accommodations in Tengchong.
17:45 Death of the Fitzwilliams' landlady coincided with the birth of the Fitzwilliams' son. The death prompted mourning by the Chinese.
18:45 Description of a Chinese custom which prevented newly delivered mothers from going out the front gate of her home for one month. Fitzwilliam's Burmese doctor identified the commotion from the mourners as a threat to Fitzwilliam's recovery from the delivery and demanded her removal from the compound. Exit was made through a hole knocked through the back wall of the courtyard
20:45 Transferred to Muchengpo following completion of their language exams to begin Lisu langauge study at Christmas, 1929
21:45 Mr. Fitzwilliam's death in 1940 from typhus fever
22:00 Mrs. Fitzwilliam was temporarily stationed at Chefoo school on the coast, intending to return to field work
22:45 Japanese intensification of their war effort: passed through the Lisu area and burned the mission station, preventing Mrs. Fitzwilliam's return
23:15 Internment by the Japanese; later repatriated
23:45 Fitzwilliam accompanied the children of CIM workers who were in unoccupied China. The mission opened a hostel for approximately ten children in Philadelphia. With the return of their parents to the US in the course of the following year, the hostel was disbanded
25:00 Offered a home and job by her brother, Fitzwilliam declined because she wanted a more spiritually Christian environment for her son
25:30 Moved in with CIM co-worker, Ruth Thomas, in Wheaton, activities in Wheaton
26:00 Jack finished high school in Wheaton, having already completed part of his studies on the long sea journey home
26:30 Fitzwilliam stayed on in Wheaton after Thomas returned to China, working at the College
27:15 Reapplied to CIM. The Communists' assumption of control of China prevented her return to China and she stayed in Wheaton
27:45 Worked for five years as dean of women at the Philadelphia Bible College. Again returned to work at Wheaton College. Retired in 1969 and stayed in Wheaton
29:15 Parent's influence on Christian life
29:45 Description of the Advent Christian Church. Heavy emphasis on Christ's second coming
30:00 Advent Christian Church's distinctive belief in "soul sleep"
30:15 Parent's Christian influence
31:15 Description of "soul sleep"
32:45 The lack of missionary emphasis in the Advent Christian Church
33:00 George Kohl's influence in turning Kingston's thoughts to missions. The missions emphasis of the Baptist church despite the unavailability of missionaries in the area
34:45 Influence of Conservative Baptist Church on Baptist church and Kingston
36:00 The unavailability of many missions influences
37:15 Mother's concern about Kingston's going to Chicago, but did not want to stand in the way of God's leading
39:00 Kingston felt immediately welcome at Moody
40:00 Encouraged by Christian commitment at Moody, unlike spiritual cold she had come from in New England, absence of Christian influences in New England
41:00 Associates at Moody: John and Isobel Kuhn, Hazel Williamson (each who later worked with CIM), and Ethel Harper
42:45 Moody's missionary course components and professors. The missionary course was added on to the general Bible course
44:00 Teacher training course with Dr. James Gray was her least enjoyable but most stretching class. Students feared being called on
45:30 Description of Gray
46:00 End of tape

Tape T2 - side 2
00:00 Beginning of tape
00:05 Overlap from side 1
01:45 Kingston's experience in Gray's class. (Tape somewhat garbled.)
02:45 Warmth of spiritual life at Moody. Devotions, chapel services led by Dr. Gray; women's chapel several times a week; geographical prayer groups. Fitzwiliam in the China group
05:00 Mondays were day off
05:15 Monday night visits to Isaac Page's house.
06:00 Student service assignments. Kingston taught Sunday school in Englewood, visited a detention home, had visitation at Cook County Hospital, and participated in street meetings
06:45 Conditions in Cook Country Hospital. Had nightmares following visitation at Cook County Hospital; never saw anything worse in China
08:00 Kingston's testimonies in street meetings
08:30 No recollection of specific call to China.
09:15 Recollection of Page's influence
09:30 Description of Page. Nicknamed Kingston "Plug"
10:45 CIM orientation in Toronto. Was the only candidate there. Living among the missionaries and Council members was intended to allow both the candidate and the Council to know one another. Orientation included initial Chinese language study
12:00 Incident of Kingston receiving letter from Fitzwilliam; Council learned of it and questioned her about their relationship during their interview
12:30 Participation in orientation only by mission invitation
12:45 Application consisted of written application, resume of Christian life and call
13:15 Sense of awe in meeting the Council. Questioned about how she would present the Gospel to a person she knew she would never meet again
13:45 Council included the Home Director, Dr. Frost
14:15 Interview by Council conducted at the end of her 2-3 week stay
14:30 Required to leave the room while Council members conferred
14:45 Council emphasized looking to the Lord for financial support
15:15 Graduation from Moody in December
15:30 Visited George Kohl in Cleveland; then to Toronto for orientation
15:45 Fitzwilliam accepted by CIM in late spring
16:00 Kingston and Fitzwilliam engaged after Fitzwilliam's acceptance by CIM
16:15 Next meeting after engagement followed their evacuation to Shanghai
17:00 Departure for Shanghai from Vancouver; traveled to Vancouver from Toronto
17:30 Sailed to China on the Empress
17:45 Difficulty of leaving home, especially for her mother. Recalls no doubts or fears. Her goal was to see a spiritually strong Chinese church
19:00 Arrival in Shanghai following stop in Tokyo first. Culture shock in Tokyo moderated the impact of Shanghai
19:45 Met by CIM representatives who accompanied them to CIM headquarters
20:15 Description of Shanghai
21:00 Description of CIM headquarters
21:30 Description of General Director, Mr. Hoste. His invitations to CIM men to pray with him. Praying would continue for several hours
22:15 The large permanent staff at the headquarters to handle international business
22:45 Accommodations for permanent and temporary staff
23:15 Daily prayer time for the workers
23:30 Reason for headquarters being located in China
25:00 Stay in Shanghai lasted several weeks before leaving for Yangzhou
25:15 Description of language school in Yangzhou
25:45 Description of an average day at language school
27:30 Practicing Chinese with the townspeople limited
27:45 Freedom of movement limited due to anti-foreign sentiment.
27:15 Personal experience of anti-foreign sentiment and friendliness
28:45 Mission decision on appointment followed completion of language school
29:00 Mood of uneasiness among CIM workers following mass evacuation to Shanghai.
29:45 Most missionaries evacuated to reduce pressure for Chinese Christians
30:00 Chiang's rejection of Communism
30:45 Fitzwilliams were the first to leave Shanghai because it was easier to get to their area in Southwest China.
31:00 Feelings about being stranded in Shanghai. Met many older missionaries and those usually isolated in other regions of China
32:15 Everyone tense when assignments were made. Workers went where they were assigned; they expected to be told where to go, they went, and they had little input in the matter
33:15 Fitzwilliams were hoping for tribal work as a result of Page's influence and the indirect influence of Fraser
34:15 Sentiment among CIM workers that working among the tribes or Tibet was more adventurous. The glamor of tribal work
34:45 Isobel Kuhn's description of tribal work: physical hardship but spiritual luxury
35:00 Fitzwilliams married following their designation
35:15 Description of their marriage in the Free Christian Church in Shanghai
36:30 American Counsul's attendance and mistaken identity at the wedding
37:30 Honeymoon in Shanghai
37:45 CIM's reduction of 2-year postponement of marriage to one year resulted in mass-CIM weddings
38:00 Free Christian Church intended for foreigners
38:15 CIM clustering of workers with similar theological backgrounds and persuasions. Fitzwilliams were located in an interdenominational zone
39:45 All those working in Western Yunnan were Americans except for Fraser
40:00 Fraser reported to be very accommodating
40:15 National differences were also considered in designations
41:00 Description of trip from Shanghai to Muchengpo via Singapore, and Rangoon
42:30 Enjoyed traveling in Burma. Considered British good colonizers. Burma became their supply line. Accompanied by other CIM workers, Harold and Margarite Casto. Trip enabled the Fitzwilliams to get to know Fraser
44:30 Description of Fraser
44:45 Account of Fraser's use of room in Buddhist temple for private devotions
45:15 Fraser nearly refused by the mission because of a hearing problem which would impede his Chinese. Fraser commended by Chinese and Lisu for his mastery of their languages
45:45 Fraser very musical
46:00 End of tape

Tape T2 - side 3
00:00 Beginning of tape
00:15 Overlap from side 2 of previous tape
03:30 Fraser's piano recitals while travelling, relaxing reading sheet music
04:15 Fraser's enthusiasm about using Chinese music in mission work
05:30 Lisu were very musical; would laugh at Chinese singing
05:545 End of tape

Tape T3 - side 1
00:00 Beginning of tape
00:05 Fraser's leadership characterized by strong convictions. Fraser's strong convictions about indigenous leadership of the national church were not popular among all CIM missionaries
01:45 Hoste wanted Fraser to succeed him as CIM director, Fraser's decline
03:15 Older missionaries tended to oppose Fraser's position on indigenous leadership; younger missionaries tended to support it
03:30 Fraser could have been more tactful
04:00 Mr. Gibb's commendation of Fraser
04:30 Fraser brought out the best in his associates. Always had time to discuss serious matters, and consequently work late evenings
06:00 (Recording faint)
06:15 Fraser helped the Fitzwilliams get established. Characterized as a "real comfort and understanding friend."
07:00 Fraser's adoption of Chinese ways. Further description of Fraser
08:30 Indigenous church policies accounted for the strength of the Lisu church. The missionary was received as an advisor and Bible teacher
11:00 Use of indigenous principles in other areas of China
11:30 Description of John and Isobel Kuhn, two weeks north
13:00 Mrs. John Graham, Isobel Kuhn and Mrs. Fitzwilliam jointly purchased a home together in Wheaton in 1951, while John Kuhn was surveying potential mission fields in Asia
14:15 Description of Mr. Hoste
15:15 Amusing account of incident of Hoste and young child, illustrating his sense of humor. Further description of Hoste. Leadership style described, particularly compared with Fraser's
18:15 Mission leadership shared by the Council rather than held by the Director
19:00 Description of Bishop Houghton, Director during the war years and through CIM departure from China. Controversy surrounding his departure from his leadership post. "Too English for an international mission."
21:15 Difference between British and American ways illustrated by Houghton's British ways compared with Fraser's. Fraser much more at home with Americans
22:00 Tension between the British and American ways in the mission. Mission had a distinctively British flavor, although American ways were gradually introduced
23:00 American ways frowned upon as a bit too wild; incident with British woman at language school over gum chewing
24:30 Learning the Lisu language. Chinese study preceded Lisu study. Fitzwilliams studied Chinese in Tengchong
25:30 Description of the Lisu language. Tones and difficult construction
26:30 Account of linguistic gaffe by Mrs. Fitzwilliam
27:00 Lisu encouragement and amusement during language learning. Learning conversational Lisu made easier than Chinese by the patience and help from the Lisu, even though difficult and demanding on the Lisu
29:45 Description of written Lisu: phonetic script.
30:00 Giving messages in Lisu after a year
30:15 Fitzwilliam's recitation of John 3:16 in Lisu, grammatical construction
33:00 Kachin language study was more difficult because no written material was then available. Young Lisu boy who had grown up with Kachin boys helped the Fitzwilliams with their Kachin
34:15 The Fitzwilliams' move into Kachin area. Official in the area had attended an American Baptist school in Burma and married a Singphowoman
35:15 Description of five Kachin tribes with different languages
35:45 Atsi Kachin predominate in China. Minimal evangelization done among them
36:00 Official knew Singpho and Atsi and with a Singpho Bible and minimal Chinese was able to assist the Fitzwilliams in learning Kachin. Language system developed through long question and answer process. The Fraser script was used for written Kachin
37:00 Mrs. Fitzwilliam's bout with dysentery necessitated her transfer to Mandalay, Burma to recover. While recuperating, the Fitzwilliams met a Christian Atsi Kachin who assisted Mrs. Fitzwilliam in finalizing her work on the translation of the Gospel of Mark
39:30 Hospital stay lasted a few days, with the remaining time of her three months in Mandalay spent in the American Baptist rest home
40:30 Account of assistant's amusement at variances between languages
41:45 Fitzwilliam's recitation from Kachin catechism
42:15 Description of Kachin word for a good creator. Description of Kachin grammatical construction: more like Chinese
44:00 Catechism developed among the Lisu by compiling questions about God, Jesus, Christian conduct and worship. Method's success with the Lisu led to using it among the Kachin
44:30 Fraser's use of Romanized script for Lisu language. Need for more than 26 letters to accommodate Lisu phonetics.
45:00 End of tape

Tape T3 - side 2
00:00 Beginning of tape
00:05 Overlap from side 1
0l:30 Continued discussion on Fraser's use of Romanized characters, which he turned upside down and backwards to accommodate the need for more sounds. Use of English letters was partly to facilitate printing on English language script. System attributed to Fraser's brilliance and skill
02:45 Fraser's input on the Fitzwilliam's Kachin language work
03:00 Mrs. Fraser's residence with the Fitzwilliams for 5-6 months. Discontinued because of the isolation of the station and Fraser's traveling throughout Yunnan Province
03:30 Fraser's enthusiasm about the Kachin work
03:45 Kachin language assistants kept the Fitzwilliams from being overwhelmed by the translation work
04:45 Lisu and Kachin pre-Christian belief in the existence of a good creator, although impersonal with no interest in them. People were afraid of demons because they could hurt them. Fitzwilliams saw little evidence of demons since living in the Christian community
06:15 Lisu were most affected by awareness of God's love. First appeal of the Gospel was being able to escape the demons
07:45 Turning away from the Gospel among the Lisu resulted from an unwillingness to adhere to the requirements of Christian discipleship
08:30 The Kachin were heavy drinkers, feuders and thieves, even stealing members of enemies' families
08:45 The Kachin, like the Lisu, were captivated by the concept of God's love
09:15 Contrast in the appearance of converted and unconverted Lisu
10:15 Lisu Christians usually formed a Christian village
10:30 Origin of the Christian village idea. Distinction between the converted and unconverted Lisu necessitated the change
11:30 The Fitzwilliam's initial arrival at Muchengpo during the Christmas season. The Christian celebration consisted of a four day festival at the end of the harvest season. People stopped their work and came to a central village for the Festival of the Birth of Christ. Also included annual offerings where each village would announce its gift
13:45 The town was decorated; as people arrived, those already at the village would sing a welcome song.
14:30 Kachin came to Muchengpo when he heard about the festival and the arrival of foreign teachers.
15:00 The Kachin man asked Fitzwilliam to send workers to the Kachin so they could be happy too
15:30 Death of senior missionary, Mr. Gowman, required the Fitzwilliams to take charge of the Lisu work and prevented their going to the Kachin
16:15 The Fitzwilliams' decision to visit a Kachin village before furlough to check on their openness to the Gospel
16:30 Distinction between "tame" and "wild" Kachin
17:00 Visited area in mountain ranges 2-3 days journey from station
17:15 Lisu attempts to dissuade the Fitzwilliam visit
18:15 Lisu boy who knew Kachin accompanied Fitzwilliam. Picked a village to visit and was greeted by the village dogs
18:45 Greeted by a young Kachin man who thanked God for sending Fitzwilliam. Description of reasons for man's warm greeting. Inability as chief to convince the rest of the village of the value of the Gospel led him to pray for a missionary to visit
22:45 After returning from their furlough, the Fitzwilliams learned that the chief had been murdered by other Kachin
23:00 Fitzwiliams went to a "tame" Kachin village in a predominantly Lisu area
23:30 The Gospels in the Lisu Bible were the first translated and therefore the most familiar. Fraser first translated Mark, then the other Gospels and then Acts and Old Testament stories. At the time of the Fitzwilliams' arrival, the Lisu were most anxious to study the epistles which had just been translated
25:15 The Lisu love for singing
26:15 Isolation from other missionaries. Closest neighbor was a missionary a day's journey away in a Chinese city.
27:00 More contacts with the American Baptist missionaries in Burma, to whom they went for medical assistance
27:45 Sense of isolation minimized by closeness to the Lisu
28:45 Description of Mr. Fitzwilliam
29:45 He loved the Lisu and could always be found at the location of the loudest laughter among the Lisu
30:45 Further description of Fitzwilliam
31:15 Lisu would take Fitzwilliam deer hunting
31:45 The Lisu considered Fitzwilliam their friend
32:15 Fitzwilliam's ability with languages adequate
33:15 Fitzwilliam died of typhus in 1940 while in an area leading Bible studies
33:30 Mrs. Fitzwilliam had been with him and returned to the station three days away to care for visiting missionaries
33:45 With the onset of the illness, Fitzwilliam taught from his cot. When the disease worsened, the Lisu carried him back to the sta tion. As a result of sleeping outside on the return trip, he became sicker. When finally at the station, a doctor diagnosed controllable typhus and lung congestion, the latter which killed him
35:00 The Lisu bury their dead in the hills; they have no cemeteries
36:15 The hardest part of his death to his mother was that he was in an isolated area for far away. Not so hard for Mrs. Fitzwilliam. Fitzwilliam would have wanted to be buried in Lisu country. Attitudes toward his death
37:45 After Fitzwilliam's death, the old Kachin man who had first asked the Fitzwilliams to come to the Kachin assured Mrs. Fitzwilliam of their care, as did the Lisu
38:30 End of tape

Tape T4 - side 1
00:00 Beginning of tape
00:05 Causes of death for missionaries among the Lisu, many deaths
01:00 Description of the relative cleanliness of the Lisu. Lisu carried lice; the Kachin carried bedbugs
01:30 Mr. Fitzwilliam attracted the bugs, which was also how typhus was transmitted
02:30 Deaths among missionaries due to inaccessibility of medical care
03:30 The rainy season intensified the sense of isolation
04:30 Following Fitzwilliam's death, Mrs. Fitzwilliam remained at the station, intending to stay. A letter from the headquarters urged her to visit Chefoo School in Yantai where her son was staying. Although intending to return to the Kachin work, the war and particularly the Japanese sweep through the area, in which their station was burned, prevented her doing so
05:45 She prepared to return in 1949 and 1950 but the expulsion of the mission from China ended the attempt
06:15 House arrest at the school in Yantai by the Japanese. Later interned at a Presbyterian mission station, also in Yantai
07:30 Presbyterian station consisted of three or four private homes. Fitzwilliam stayed with 30 prep school boys that she taught
08:45 House arrest lasted 6-7 months
09:15 Moved to Wei Xian, another Presbyterian station, for two weeks, prior to repatriation. Only Americans were repatriated; the British remained until the end of the war
10:15 Good treatment by Japanese attributed to Japanese love for children
10:30 Japanese soldiers would befriend the children
11:45 Japanese Christian escorted the repatriates to their boat to travel to Wei Xian. He was given three cheers by the children
12:45 Less brutal treatment by the Japanese attributed to prayer
13:15 Japanese officers less kind than the soldiers. Internees reminded that they were prisoners by having to line up daily and number off in Japanese
14:00 Description of the repatriation process: transported to Shanghai by train, then by sea on a French ship to Goa, on the west side of India, where the transfer occurred. Ship intended for a few hundred carried a few thousand
15:30 Description of the exchange in Goa. Transfer to the Gripsolm, a Swedish ship. The crew had prepared a large feast
18:00 Although exchanged at Goa, they were only free at Port Elisabeth, South Africa. Stopped at South America on the way to New York
19:15 The delight of freedom
19:30 Caring for the children on the trip home
20:00 End of tape

Tape T5 - side 1
00:00 Beginning of tape
01:30 Introduction
01:45 Summary of dates: years at Moody (1922-1925), application to CIM (c. 1924), traveled to China (1926), evacuated from Shanghai (1927), length of stay in Shanghai (1 year), designated to Lisu work (1927)
04:45 The Fitzwilliams worked among the Kachin in Longch'iu
05:00 Further summary of dates: came to Wheaton from CIM youth hostel (1944 or 1945), Dean of Women at the Philadelphia Bible Institute (1952-1957), reactivated by CIM (c.1949)
07:45 She worked in the accounting department at Wheaton College before and after working at Philadelphia Bible Institute
08:15 Deputation during reactivation. Returned to Wheaton College when missionaries were no longer allowed to work in China
09:30 Summary of internment: under house arrest at Chefoo School about one year; then transferred to Temple Hill; then transferred to Wei Xian
12:00 Japanese activities prior to the American declaration of war: occupied the area around the camp.
12:45 The Japanese posted guards at the gates when war was declared. No one was allowed to leave the school compound
13:15 Prior to house arrest, they were required to wear an "A" for American or "B" for Britisher when going into the town
14:30 School population not bothered by the guards. Reference to recent article in East Asia Millions with information on CIM workers who were interned
15:30 The principal fear of the staff was for the students' safety
15:45 Japanese soldiers were friendly with the children. They used to show the boys their weapons
16:15 Mr. Kosaka, the Japanese civilian in charge of the camp, showed the boys a New Testament and indicated he was a Christian
16:30 Kosaka's treatment was very restrained
16:45 CIM's consideration of moving Chefoo School to Canada, England, America, and Madagascar. None of the possibilities materialized
17:30 Description of the facilities at Chefoo School
18:30 Fitzwilliam's responsibilities at the school: cared for the newly arrived young children at the prep school who needed special attention due to their homesickness
19:30 In her second year she taught and helped the second grade teacher, since no new students arrived for her to care for
20:15 Incident of young boy, Paul Grant, who was very homesick. He adjusted well
20:45 The students had happy lives
21:15 Incident of Jack Fitzwilliam not understanding Mrs. Fitzwilliam's sadness about their separation when he had to return to school
22:00 The hiding of possessions in the school when war was declared against the Japanese, fearing that they would soon search the facilities
22:45 Consideration of hiding a radio, which the school headmaster overruled
23:15 The school heard about declaration of war on the radio. No surprise
23:45 The Japanese later took over the camp and confiscated the hidden things
24:30 School community was moved to Temple Hill because the Japanese wanted the school compound for a military base
25:15 They were transported to the Temple Hill compound by walking one or two miles. The students sang "God Is Still On the Throne" while walking
25:30 They were allowed to take their possessions
26:15 Description of Temple Hill facilities
27:15 Approximately 200 people transferred to Temple Hill
28:00 Life at Temple Hill was different because they had no Chinese help, so the adults they had to do all the cooking and cleaning
28:15 Making coal balls for heating and cooking from coal dust soaked in water
29:45 Teaching responsibilities largely stopped because the adults were busy with duties. Teams were set up to handle cooking, cleaning, etc
30:30 Camp life was coordinated by the headmaster and principal of the boy's school, Mr. Patrick Bruce, principal of the prep school, Ailsa K. Carr, and the principal of the girl's school, Miss E.M. Broomhall
31:00 Treatment differed at Temple Hill from that at Chefoo School in that everyone had to line up and number off in Japanese. The Japanese weren't nasty
31:45 They were moved to Wei Xian because the Temple Hill facility was being closed. Americans were moved first because they were being repatriated. The British were moved two weeks later
32:15 They learned they were being repatriated from the Japanese
32:45 Mrs. Fitzwilliam was visit and questioned by the FBI in Massachusetts to make sure the right person had been repatriated
33:15 Description of the trip to Wei Xian: by boat to Tsingdao (new name, Qingdao)
33:30 Party being transferred was accompanied to the boat by Mr. Kosaka. He was given three cheers by the boys of the school
34:30 They were under guard throughout the trip. Accommodations were very poor and crowded with no room for sleeping
35:45 The party had been told by the Japanese that they didn't need to bring bedding or food with them, that these things would be provided. They were not provided
36:00 The American nuns were very kind to the Chefoo people; the priests were "a mess". The nuns helped the Chefoo party find their bedding. There was a wide variety of people at Wei Xian
37:00 There were twenty-five to thirty Americans in the Chefoo party; the number was small because most Americans had already returned to the US.
38:00 The nuns went out of their way to help. The nuns also did a lot of the priests work. The priests were a problem with the older girls from the school
39:00 Religious activities at the camp
40:00 Odd characters in the camp
41:15 No recollection of a black market at Wei Xian. No Chinese venders allowed on the compound
42:15 Those not being repatriated were not resentful
42:45 Fitzwilliam's work assignment in the camp: kitchen and cleaning duties
43:30 The camp population was made up of wide variety of people. All Americans in the eastern part of China were placed in Wei Xian
44:30 The internees developed a strong organization of the camp
45:15 Description of living quarters. Fitzwilliam slept on the floor in a big dormitory
45:45 The food was terrible, particularly compared to the food at Chefoo School
46:00 The medical provisions for internees
46:15 End of tape

Tape T5 - side 2
00:00 Beginning of tape
00:10 Overlap from side 1
01:15 Medical care was provided by the internees at the hospital on the compound
01:45 Many other Americans were repatriated with the Chefoo group. Not sure whether all Americans from the camp were repatriated with them
02:45 No mail was received while interned. German dentist missionary came to the camp and smuggled mail between children and parents
04:00 British internees at the camp who are still living are referred to in East Asia Millions article
04:30 Fitzwilliam was not at Wei Xian long enough to gain impression of general camp attitude to missionaries
05:15 She did not meet Eric Liddell who was at the camp, but heard he was a help to the British party who later arrived from Chefoo
06:30 She very much treasured being able to take an occasional shower
07:00 Description of the weather while at Wei Xian
07:30 Reference to Shantung Compound with map of Wei Xian complex (Cf map in Appendix of this guide). Fitzwilliam pointed out where she thought her quarters were (in the upper left corner of the compound in one of the buildings off Rocky Road)
08:30 The worst thing about internment: uncertainty in early days of what would happen; safety of the students
09:45 Church services while interned were very helpful
10:15 Recollections of Martha Philips
11:30 Reference to Ruth Thomas. (Not same Thomas as in Collection 299.) The Thomases worked with Far Eastern Gospel Crusade, teaching in Japan and the Philippines
12:30 Attitude of missionaries during WWII toward future of the Chinese and tribal churches. No one imagined church would mature and grow as it did.
13:45 Fitzwilliam had no doubts about the Lisu's faithfulness
14:15 Reflections on her own ability to remain faithful while persecuted
15:15 Blank
15:45 Responsibilities in CIM which women were preventing from holding: administrative posts
16:30 No restrictions on women in the tribal work
17:00 Restricted role of women in CIM attributed to the British character of the mission
17:30 Married and single women were treated much the same by the mission
18:00 The single women did a great job while unrestrained by family responsibilities
19:15 End of tape

*****

Provenance

The materials in this collection were received by the Center in May, June and July of 1984, and November 1985, from Jennie Kingston Fitzwilliam.

Accession 84-71, 84-72, 84-85, 84-86, 84-92, 85-142
November 8, 1985
Paul A. Ericksen
J. Nasgowitz


LOCATION RECORD
Accession 84-85, 84-86, 84-92, 85-142
Type of Material: Audio tapes
The items listed below are located in the AUDIO TAPE FILE
:

T1 - Reel-to-reel, 3-3/4 ips, approximately 75 minutes. Oral history interview of Jennie Kingston Fitzwilliam by Paul A. Ericksen, recorded on June 13, 1984. Fitzwilliam talks about her recollections of missionary work in western China among the Lisu and Kachin tribes. One side.

T2 - Reel-to-reel, 3-3/4 ips, approximately 95 minutes. Oral history interview of Jennie Kingston Fitzwilliam by Paul A. Ericksen, recorded on June 21, 1984. Fitzwilliam discusses her youth, education at Moody Bible Institute, China Inland Mission, her work in China, and J.O. Fraser. One side.

T3 - Reel-to-reel, 3-3/4 ips, approximately 85 minutes. Oral history interview of Jennie Kingston Fitzwilliam by Paul A. Ericksen, recorded on July 12, 1984. Fitzwilliam discusses J.O. Fraser and other CIM associates, work among the tribes, and her husband, Francis Fitzwilliam. One side.

T4 - Reel-to-reel, 7-1/2 ips, approximately 20 minutes. Continuation of T3. One side.

T5 - Reel-to-reel, 3-3/4 ips, approximately 65 minutes. Oral history interview of Jennie Fitzwilliam by Paul A. Ericksen, recorded on October 31, 1985.Fitzwiliam describes her internment by the Japanese in Yantai and Wei Xian from 1941-1943 and the role of women in the CIM. One side.

*****

LOCATION RECORD
Accession 84-85
Type of Material: Photographs
The following items are located in the PHOTO FILE
; request by Folder Titles at the beginning of each entry below:

FITZWILLIAM, FRANCIS & JENNI. Group shots including Fitzwilliam. One of the shots is of a group of CIM men, preparing to leave Shanghai on a river steamer. The shot also includes David Campbell, J. Harold Casto, and John B. Kuhn. Shots of Mrs. J.O. Fraser and her children being transported along with Jennie Fitzwilliam in sedan chairs in 1936. 4 b&w.

KACHIN (TRIBE). Shots of Kachin children and adults. One photograph is of the Chinese appointed headman of a village. Each photo also shows Kachin buildings, including one used for church meetings. 4 b&w.

LISU (TIBETO-BURMAN TRIBE). Lisu tribe. Shots include a Lisu evangelist, Lisu women in traditional dress, and a building project. 5 b&w.

OMF (CIM) CHINA: STATIONS. CIM language school in Anking, Anhwei (new names, Anqing, Anhui). 1 b&w.

*****

LOCATION RECORD
Accession 84-85
Type of Material: Slides
The following items are located in the SLIDE FILE
; as indicated below:

SLIDE FILE BOX 13:

S1-1. Lisu tribespeople in traditional dress. Color.


CONTAINER LIST
Box Folder Description
1 1 Catechism/hymnbook: Atsi Kachin translation; n.d.
Letters: Lisu
1 2 1945-1950
1 3 (translated); 1946
1 4 New Testament: Lisu translation; 1939
1 5 Testimonies: China's Millions; 1926



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