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Collection 177 [February 6, 2008]
Alford, Zoe Anne; 1912-2007
Papers; 1925-1983, n.d.
11 Boxes (11 DC, 4.75 cubic feet), Audio Tape, Oversize Material, Photographs
There are no restrictions on the use of this collection.
THERE IS A COMPLETE TYPED TRANSCRIPT AVAILABLE FOR THE INTERVIEW IN THIS COLLECTION.
Zoe Anne Alford was born near Red Springs, Texas, to Van Dorn and Myra Benge Alford on September 29, 1912. Alford's father died when she was six. Following her mother's death six years later, she went to live with her maternal grandparents. Alford received her elementary education at the Cottonwood Rural School. She was sent to Seymour, Texas, for her high school education, graduating with honors. While in high school, Alford felt a call to go to India as a missionary through the influence of a Presbyterian missionary, Lena Boyd. Following her high school graduation in 1930, Alford attended the University of Texas for one year, after which she taught in rural elementary schools. She continued her university education in summer school between school years. While a student at the university, she was also involved in the Student Volunteer Movement, the YWCA and Moody Fellowship.
Alford moved to Chicago in 1937 to attend Moody Bible Institute. She completed the Christian education program in 1940 and took courses in Bible and missions the following year. While at Moody, Alford had many contacts with missionaries from India and subsequently applied to the Scandanavian Alliance Mission, later renamed The Evangelical Alliance Mission (TEAM). In 1941, Alford was accepted by the Scandanavian Alliance Mission although her departure for India was delayed until the conclusion of World War II in 1945.
In 1941, after working a short time in Texas, Alford worked in Farmington, New Mexico, as a missionary among the Navajo Indians in the Methodist Mission School. In 1944, using accumulated credits from the University of Texas and Moody, Alford entered Wheaton College. She completed the required course work as well as acquiring additional graduate credits, graduating from Wheaton in 1945.
Alford departed for India in late-1945 and spent the next two years in East Khandesh, studying the Indian dialect (Marathi) of the area where she would be working. In 1948 she was assigned to work as the principal of the Dharangaon Baby Home, Orphanage & Girl's School, located north of Bombay. In 1950, Alford was appointed the principal of the Sunrise School, a boarding school for missionary children. She continued there until her furlough in 1957.
While on her furlough between 1957 and 1958, Alford returned to Wheaton College to study in its graduate school. She completed her M.A. in 1958, writing her thesis on the Christian Education curriculum at the Union Bible Seminary (UBS), to which she had been assigned by TEAM to return to teach following her furlough. She remained at UBS until her retirement in 1970, working as an assistant professor and director of the library. Throughout her career, Alford had furloughs during 1951-1952, 1957-1959 and 1965-1966.
Alford's retirement was necessitated by her declining health. Following her return to the U.S.,
she worked at Biola College from 1970 to 1977, and as church secretary in a local church in
Wichita Falls, Texas, until 1981. She died October 29, 2007.
Scope and Content
[NOTE: In the Scope & Content section, the notation "Folder 2-5" means Box 2, Folder 5.]
The documents in this collection include curriculum materials and lecture notes, manuscripts of messages, correspondence, circular prayer letters, financial records, clippings, maps, promotional materials, minutes, photographs, newsletters, audio tapes, etc., related to Alford's work in India and among Navajo Indians in New Mexico. The collection provides a broad overview of her education, preparation and missionary career, extending from her grammar school education into her retirement. It provides an equally broad view of Christian work, both indigenous and foreign, in India. The arrangement of the collection has remained as it was received from Alford with only minor modifications. The division titles have in some instances been the creation of the archivist. Some of the files include notes added by Alford prior to her giving these files to the Archives consisting of recollections Alford noted at the time these materials were given to the Archives and offering context to the documents. Although these notes are included with the folders they were received in, the dates noted on the folder do not reflect the dates of the notes' creation.
The materials have been subdivided into three major sections: I. Alford's education and career, II. India, and III. TEAM. These sections have been further subdivided and the researcher should refer to the container list of this guide for further detail on these.
I. Zoe Anne Alford (folders 1-1 through 7-5)
Folders 1-1 through 3-2 contain materials Alford used in teaching while in India, generally for courses divided between theology courses and Christian Education. Folders 1-1 through 2-7 consist of lessons plans, course syllabi, lecture notes, assignments, bibliographies, examinations, and resource materials Alford made available to her students. These files not only deal with the principles and practices of education but demonstrate Alford's application of them. Alford's notes for each course are filed separately; the researcher should therefore consult the container list for a full list of these. Notes on some documents identify them as coming from her teachers or from her own course work while a student at Wheaton College. However, the collection also includes many examples of materials prepared within, and referring to, the Indian context.
A number of items are of particular interest and worthy of brief mention:
Folder 1-5: Handout on the use of audio-visual aids in Christian education, including such headings as "The Place of Audio-visual aids in Presenting the Gospel," "Audio-visuals in India," and "Dangers and Disadvantages in the Use of Audio-visual Aids in India."
Folder 1-8: Script for a puppet drama on the parable of the prodigal son and scripts for three dramas, "Read and Rejoice" on the value of education, "The Conversion of Saul," and "The Outlaws" on the life of an Indian traveling evangelist.
Folder 1-9: Small book, Training Voluntary Workers, including curriculum outlines and teaching suggestions, ranging from sessions on worship to village community sanitation. Other items are related to the training of volunteer lay workers: a small booklet on a lay leaders' institute; the booklet, Findings of the Conference on Training of Voluntary Leaders; rules and regulations for village leaders' training institutes; and a health and hygiene handout.
Folder 2-2: Small booklet Alford advised the author on, The Sunday School Teacher and His Pupil.
Folder 2-4: Assignments turned in by students on preparing inductive Bible studies.
Folder 2-5: Examples from the Indian press of Indian stories. Also a draft of a paper on storytelling for a course Alford was taking in the Wheaton Grad School.
Folder 2-6: Manuscript of a article written by colleague Frank Kline on curriculum development at the Union Biblical Seminary. Also U.B.S.'s 1957 annual report.
Folder 2-8: Flannel graph kits for teaching children, including The Christian Home Yardstick, produced in India for use with Indian children.
Folder 2-9: Publicity packet produced by the Free Methodist Church on their work in India and Egypt and general information on the countries.
Folder 3-1: Mimeographed handouts for teacher training workshops; booklet, "Twenty-five Ways to Teach!"
Folder 3-2: Materials adapted from Scripture Press publications for use in India, including the handbook, How to Be A Youth Advisor.
Folders 3-3 through 3-13 contain items which document Alford's education from grade school through her graduate work at Wheaton. These consist of materials on both her academic work and extra-curricular activities. Among these are documents (folder 3-6) on Alford's involvement in Christian Endeavor and the Student Volunteer Movement (SVM) while at the University of Texas, including a 1934-35 annual report on the Texas Christian Endeavor Union in Dallas, of which Alford was the district officer, and several SVM pamphlets, "Shall the Tent-Makers Preach?" and "Jerusalem's Challenge and Student Response to World Needs."
Alford's involvement in teaching and curriculum development was nurtured while she studied at Moody Bible Institute. Folder 3-10 consists of several papers Alford wrote while at Moody, mostly for a course on curriculum development. Among these is a proposed curriculum for a ten-day vacation Bible school program that Alford and five other women collaborated on. Alford and several other women taught in a Moody Neighborhood Sunday School; her evaluation of the teaching methods and style of her fellow workers are also among the contents of folder 3-10. The file also includes a paper she wrote, "Evangelism of Youth."
While studying at Moody, Alford was also involved in ministry in the Chicago area. Folder 3-7 contains the text of a message she gave over the radio on the broadcast, "Radio Revival." Materials in folder 3-8 document Alford's participation in the Englewood Christian Church in Chicago, among them a pamphlet on the Chicago District Evangelistic Association (CDEA) and notes from a course that Alford taught at a camp in Indiana sponsored by the CDEA and the church. Folder 3-9 also contains similar material.
Material related to Alford's study at Wheaton, both as an undergraduate and graduate student include items on her academic work and recognition (folders 3-11 and 12) and the manuscript of a paper she wrote for a Philosophy of Christian Education course in which Alford outlined her personal philosophy of education folder 3-13).
Folders 3-14 through 4-2 document relationships Alford had with three of her students whom she characterized as "proteges." Bendang Shijung Ao came to the United States in 1972 to study at Asbury Theological Seminary with major financial support from Alford. The files related to Ao's coming to Asbury include information on Alford's financial responsibility for Ao's expenses, accounts of his experiences as an international student, arrangements for his travel, consideration of which graduate school to attend, and on his activities upon returning to India. Folder 3-16 contains a letter from Alford in which she strongly reacts to Ao's expressed intention to return to the US for doctoral studies.
In 1960 Alford befriended Skakuntila Khare, a worker with the Ramabai Mukti Mission. Included in folder 4-1 are a 1966-67 annual report with an article by Khare and several other short articles by or about Khare.
R. Premnath was affiliated with the Methodist Church in India and refers to Alford as "dear mother in the Lord." As in the case of Bendang Shijung, Alford appears to have provided financial support for his education at U.B.S. Among the materials in folder 4-2 is Alford's correspondence with Saphir Athyal, then principal at the Union Biblical Seminary, in which she argues for admission on behalf of Premnath, despite his lack of certain qualifications. Alford's intervention appears to have led to Premnath's admission and the modification of U.B.S.'s admission policy.
Folders 4-3 through 5-6 relate to Alford's membership in the Evangelical Alliance Mission (TEAM), documenting her application to and acceptance by the mission, as well as her financial status throughout her term of service. Folder 4-3 includes a copy of an article printed in TEAM's Missionary Broadcaster, which Alford wrote shortly before leaving for India, summarizing her pilgrimage to work as a missionary in India.
Folder 4-5 contains a complete set of Alford's circular prayer letters which were sent to her supporters throughout her career. Of interest is a one-page set of illustrations which a local printer was able to incorporate in the printing of her letters, examples of which appear occasionally in them. Of interest is an August 1947 letter describes Independence Day in India. A continuation of her letters written following her departure from India is also available in folder 6-7.
Alford's files (folders 4-7 though 4-13) on her status while a missionary include reports from TEAM on receipts for her support, a 1947 statement from the mission on "Missionaries' Allowances and Gifts," and occasional correspondence about her support status in light of increasing costs on the field. Some of the correspondence is also helpful in illuminating the administrative structure of TEAM and its dispersal of funds.
In the course of her career on the field and during furloughs, Alford made numerous presentations. Notes for some of these are included in folder 5-1, such as "Women's Work in the Seminary," and touch on life in India, her work, and missions.
Particularly interesting are annual reports which Alford wrote on her own work (folder 5-2). Also of interest is Alford's complete outfit list (folder 5-5) which she used in preparing to go to India.
Folders 5-7 through 6-7 specifically document Alford's three major assignments while working in India: principal at the Dharangaon Baby Home, Orphanage and Girl's School; principal at Sunrise School (for missionary children); and teaching at Union Biblical Seminary. The following are some highlights from these files:
Folder 5-7: Letter Alford sent to children in the United States describing a typical day and everyday life at Dharangaon. Folder 5-8 contains a similar letter describing life at the Sunrise School.
Folder 5-8: Letter from Charles and Betty Guth. Also materials related to Alford's attempts to develop the Sunrise School curriculum, a "Rules and Guiding Principles" booklet and a two-page formulation of the school's curriculum which Alford was proposing.
Folder 5-12: Texts of two messages Alford gave on the teaching methods of Jesus; manuscript on teacher training; text of a chapel message on social justice and the Christian; information on the building of the girl's hostel at UBS which Alford was deeply involved in.
Folder 5-13: Manuscript by colleague, Frank J. Kline, "The Scope of Christian Education (in India)."
Folder 5-14: Material on or by other UBS faculty: Christian Laws, a booklet for "young Christian preachers, pastors and teachers and Indian Christians," providing an overview of Indian law and how the Christian should function in relation to it, treating subjects such as the possession of land, criminal behavior, taxes, voting, representational bodies, money, marriage, wills, mortgages and legal rights; a letter from Bruce Nicholls regarding Theological Assistance Program (TAP), involved in theological education by extension; resume and tour schedule for Saphir Athyal as well as his article, "Israel Amid the Nations: A Confrontation of Faiths," dealing with the relationship between general history and salvation history.
Folder 5-17: Sketchy overview of the seminary's history in the form of: minutes of a 1950 meeting of the Evangelical-Holiness Theological Education Committee where the development of the seminary was considered; an undated incorporation document; document outlining the 1968 pay scale for UBS faculty and staff; minutes from the 1970 meeting of the board of governors; first draft of a feasibility study being conducted by UBS, considering relocation, expansion, and other management and long-range plans; scripts for two 1977 promotional audio tapes on the seminary; and a 1970-1971 financial report.
Folder 5-18: Items documenting local contacts as well as outreach of UBS students: a prospectus for a local liberal arts college, a report by a student on his evangelistic trip into Tibet, a collection of four reports by a student who traveled into Nepal, and a statistical report on work by local evangelistic teams.
Folder 5-19: Documents illustrating links to and assistance from North American agencies in support of educational work on the mission field.
Folder 6-1: Printed materials about or by U.B.S., including promotional brochures to enlist support by American Christians.
Folder 6-2: The 1966-67 issue of the Challenge featuring evangelism in India. Folder 6-4 contains miscellaneous items by or about UBS students.
Folders 6-5 through 6-16 document other aspects of Alford's life although not completely excluding her missionary career. Folder 6-5 contains a variety of autobiographical items such as a 1981 obituary Alford wrote about herself; a lengthy letter written just after she had applied to TEAM outlining the course of her decision to become a missionary; an overview of her life between 1922 and 1951; an article she wrote entitled "My First Year in India;" two TEAM news releases; newspaper clippings; and an article she wrote in 1981, "Memory Highlights of a Single Lady Missionary, 1948-1970."
Folder 6-9 contains the only record in the collection on the Navajo Methodist Mission School and Alford's work there as a relief matron from 1941 to 1944. The material includes short information articles on missions among the Navajos, numerous copies of the school's newsletter, Mission Echos, an article on Indian religion, articles about the school and American Indians, and the essay, "Impressions and Work of a Relief Matron," which Alford wrote at the completion of her service there.
Folders 7-3 and 4 relate to Alford's involvement in the adaptation of Marjorie Soderholm's book, Understanding the Pupil, for the Indian audience. Folder 7-3 contains correspondence on the editing of and securing permission to produce the adaptation. Folder 7-4 contains a copy of Soderholm's edition, an annotated manuscript of the adaptation and a copy of the published adaptation, under the title, Understanding Youth.
II. India (folders 7-6 through 10-11)
Alford developed extensive files, both on India in general and Christian organizations, both indigenous and foreign, working in India. Folders 7-6 through 7-15 consist of background information on India. Among the materials on Christianity's history in Folder 7-10 are a paper Alford wrote, excerpts from publications, clippings, several booklets written by Indian Christians (in English) and a booklet in Indian script with illustrations. Folder 7-11 contains similar material on India's national history, such as the typed text of India's constitution. Folder 7-12 consists of maps of India, including several maps outlining all the rail lines in India, and a detailed map of the Indian state, Maharashtra. Materials on events and mission work in India's neighboring countries, Bangladesh, China, Nepal, Pakistan and Vietnam is also available (folder 7-8). The folder also contains a newspaper clipping with an article on Ray Buker and his work in Bangladesh and Ellsworth Bunker's "Impressions of India." Folder 7-15 contains information on the religions of India, among them Christianity, Buddhism, Islam and Hinduism.
Alford kept files on numerous Christian organizations at work in India, a full list of which is arranged alphabetically in the container list of this guide (folders 7-16 through 10-1). A number of items merit special mention:
Folder 7-17: Documents on the origins and work of the Christian Education Evangelical Fellowship of India (CEEFI), a department of the Evangelical Fellowship of India. CEEFI was formed following a meeting of EFI and Evangelical Literature Fellowship of India (ELFI) to consider the need for Sunday school literature and teacher training materials as well as the possibility of developing a Vacation Bible School movement in India.
Folder 8-1: Article from an African magazine by Indian, P.T. Chandapilla.
Folder 8-10: Reports on the Billy Graham Evangelistic Association's 1956 crusades in India, testimonies of Indians converted there, and the text of Graham's message to Bombay churches.
Folder 8-12: Materials reflecting the desire of the Christian Home Committee to provide suggestions for practical application of Christian teaching about family life. The principle way this was accomplished was through Christian Home Festivals, week-long programs for churches. The file contains proposed church programs, a devotional outline, posters suggesting prayers to sanctify routine domestic tasks, and examples of Indian art depicting the crucifixion, family worship, and Christ's birth. The script to a dramatic play, "A Vision of Motherhood," is also included in the file.
Folder 8-13: Copies of The Christian Home, a magazine with articles to provide a Christian perspective on issues of family life such as child development, teaching children, the father's role in the home, and marriage.
Folder 8-14: Thesis by Vernon Middleton, "A Pattern of Church Growth for Tribal India."
Folder 9-5: Wascom Pickett's "The Church of Christ in India" in which he surveys Indian Methodism and church life.
Folder 9-6: A booklet describing work on the borders of Afghanistan and several items about the work of the Red Sea Mission.
Folders 9-8 through 9-11 document the work of Ray and Christa Eicher, who were Operation Mobilization workers in India. Eicher was one of the coordinators of OM's work in India, arranging for the distribution of literature, mass evangelism crusades, Bible studies, and ministry among students. OM's work was carried out by teams, and the materials include information about the various team members in India, as well as ministry among Hindus and Muslims there. The file also includes general information on OM's work in India and the numerous countries where OM also had work, and on its ministry through its ships. An example of the kind of outreach OM was involved in can be found in folder 9-10 on the Love Maharashtra Outreach.
Folder 9-14 is a gathering of biographical notes on the following individuals: J.D. Arulmani, Catherine DeVol Cattell, Everett Lewis Cattell, Bronell A. Greer, Paula Greer, Lester Hamilton, Mary E. Hamilton, Samuel T. Kamaleson, Lillian Merry, R.H. Smith, Esther Faulkner Williams and Theodore Williams.
Folder 10-5 contains several copies of a journal circulated in India and the surrounding countries, including titles such as "Guilt and Shame in Muslim Culture With Reference to Pastoral Care," "Sin and Salvation in Islam," and "Salvation/Liberation in Hinduism and Christianity."
Folders 10-7 through 10-12 relate to ministry in Nagaland, an Indian state. Folder 10-7 includes a centenniary celebration book with a photographic history of the Ao Naga Baptist Church, which was formed by the American Baptist Foreign Mission Society among the Ao tribe. Folders 10-8 and 9 relate to Clark Theological College, which was created to meet the need for Christian education in Nagaland, and of which Alford became a "founder member" and financial supporter. Folder 10-10 contains a statistical chart on Baptist churches among the Ao tribe, giving membership and leadership totals. Folders 10-11 and 12 contain material on several Ao students Alford had taught at UBS, Sen Nangshila and I. Ben Wati.
III. TEAM (folders 10-13 through 11-10)
The concluding section of the foldered material relates primarily to TEAM's work in India, although there is material on its work elsewhere, too. These contain such items as:
Folder 10-13: Prayer letters of several of Alford's fellow missionaries. Folders 10-16, 11-1 and 11-4 contain similar documents.
Folder 10-14: Clippings from a TEAM publication on its work in various countries such as China, Portugal, Japan, the Philippines and South Africa. Of particular interest is an article on Malla Moe, a missionary in South Africa.
Folder 10-15: The pamphlet, "Holding a Missionary Conference in Your Church," as well as the 1941 edition of "The Constitution and Principles and Guiding Rules of the Scandinavian Alliance Mission of North America," and the text of the findings of an advisory committee's study on Roman Catholicism.
Folder 10-17: Documents on the work of a TEAM project in India, the Light of Life Bible correspondence course, including several copies of the 1958 editions of the materials. Continued through 10-18.
Folder 10-21: An article Alford wrote for publication on India and a booklet on the Dehli Bible Fellowship.
Folder 11-3: Various TEAM publications about its work in India. Among these are a number of
annual booklets with reports from various missionaries.
The interview with Alford was conducted by Galen R. Wilson on May 22, 1981, at the offices of the Billy Graham Center. Time elapsed in minutes and seconds is recorded to the left of the topics discussed in the interviews. This index is keyed to a cassette copy of the interview, not the reel-to-reel original.
Tape 1 - side 1 (Click to
link to the transcript of this tape)
00:00 Beginning of tape.
00:43 Called to India when sixteen; remark of friend; parents and youth.
01:56 Death of both parents when Alford twelve; determination of grandparents to give her an education.
02:17 High school years as boarder in town.
03:29 Influential friends; Lena Boyd, Presbyterian missionary to India.
04:13 Family opposition; lack of financial support.
05:12 Scholastic honors; funds from jobs and loan for college, University of Texas.
06:18 Teaching jobs after graduation; Sunday School and youth groups.
07:06 Alford's high school scholastic record never equalled.
07:44 Extra-curricular activities in college.
08:02 Student Volunteer Movement.
09:03 Summer job as cotton "puller".
09:32 Teaching four years at ranch site; problems with rented house.
10:53 Cowboy suitor.
11:09 Two summer school sessions; desire to leave Texas.
11:28 Presbyterian pastor's family as spiritual parents.
11:36 Experience of conversion at nine years.
12:16 Guidance to Moody by pastor's wife.
12:44 Arrival at Moody; jobs taken for financial support, 1937-1940. Post-graduate courses at Moody; Dr. Wilbur Smith as an inspirational teacher.
14:34 Contacts with missionaries from India; application to TEAM.
15:18 Anxieties and problems of acceptance; return to Texas, 1941, without financial support, visa.
16:12 Scriptural milestones for difficulty.
16:35 Acceptance of teaching position for Moody in Farmington, New Mexico; two happy years working with Navajos.
17:53 Dr. Charles Brooks returned to Wheaton from New Mexico as Dean of students; assisting nurse and usefulness of medical knowledge later in india; navajo war participation.
19:04 Resignation in 1944 to return to Wheaton; validation test to enter Wheaton College for 12 months as candidate for B.A. degree.
19:45 Dr. Merrill Tenney's help; acquiring graduate credits used later for furlough study and M.A. degree at Wheaton.
20:13 Billy Graham's graduation on day of Zoe's enrollment; his return to preach a year later.
20:32 Graham's radio program: "Songs in the Night", dusting Beverly Shea's desk at Moody.
21:04 Waiting for support to go to India; January, 1945, letter offering support from children's home in Alaska.
22:04 Sixteen-year wait ended; beginning of 25 years support by Alaskan home.
23:20 All needs supplied but that of husband; answer given in devotional period; acceptance of single status.
26:46 Ten-year period teaching missionary children.
27:30 Scripture verses relevant to guidance.
28:56 In New York City waiting for transportation to India; departure from Vancouver.
29:38 Language study in Western India; eventual proficiency level; home-sickness for Navajos.
31:58 United Mission Board language examination requirements.
32:30 Stationing, 1948, at TEAM Baby Fold and Orphanage, and girls' boarding school at Dharangoan, north of Bombay. Importance of these schools as foundation of TEAM work in India, geographical area of TEAM.
34:32 Rapid growth of mission work between 1945-1950; teaching in girls' school.
36:13 Initiation of correspondence school courses from conversation with Don Hillis at summer evangelizing meeting; growth of this project.
37:32 Praise of TEAM board, family spirit, combination of spiritual and practical.
38:50 Type of children in the orphanage, charges.
40:27 Partitioning aftermath, 1947-1948; Indian educational system and training of girls; originally limited except in cities; tribal girls' contacts with missionaries.
43:26 TEAM schools' role in training Indian Christians; effects of caste on Indian Christians.
44:32 End of side 1.
T1 - side 2
00:00 Beginning of tape.
00:05 Overlap from side 1.
01:53 Post-partition feelings aganst British and American nationals; care in travelling.
04:16 Tribal religious frictions; independence problems.
05:19 Reassignment to teach missionary children at new combined mission-sponsored school; ten years there.
06:50 Quarters in low-hill section at 3000' altitude given by retiring British officer.
07:57 TEAM's own school set up at Nasi(?), 1947-1967.
09:24 Use of Calvert System in teaching.
10:04 New school for training Indians to proselytize in Indian territories.
10:28 Furlough year, 1957-1958; M.A. degree at Wheaton, thesis topic on Christian Education.
11:16 Return to teach 12 years at Union Biblical Seminary, India, formerly vernacular Bible school.
11:48 English used for teaching language because there were 19 main Indian languages; opened 1953.
12:29 Teaching begun 1959; 90-95 students; expansion to over 200; occupations of graduates.
12:58 Setting up new program, Christian Education Evangelical Fellowship of India as adjunct to Evangelical Fellowship of India, her former students now leaders.
14:26 Seminary primary training ground for Indians, nationals from other countries.
16:11 Closing of mission compounds by TEAM Board in princely states because of death of cow.
18:29 Status of single women in India; openness to Gospel now.
19:40 Use of dialects in teaching at Seminary.
22:01 Private prayer meetings for students.
21:09 Poverty of some students.
21:52 Nineteen supporting bodies of Union Biblical Seminary at time of her departure; international faculty backgrounds; location near Gandhi agricultural center away from large cities.
23:45 Screening for candidates for the Seminary.
25:41 Components of curriculum.
29:25 Relations with teachers from other boards.
30:30 Degrees offered.
31:34 Refused right to teach Christian apologetics because of being a woman.
32:14 Work on library committee.
32:25 Visit of Mrs. Merrill Tenney to her sister, Mrs. Paddon, in the area; subsequent interest in Board and support of Seminary.
32:52 New buildings, Christian and Missionary Alliance librarian; cooperation of Alford and Mrs. Tenney over the years.
35:17 Dr. Tenney's shipments of books for the library, mainly in English.
36:06 Library expansion to 17,000 volumes by 1970.
36:54 Alford becomes Director of the Library after resignation by Indian national.
38:04 Training of assistant librarian in Madras and America.
38:56 Health problems cause of end of service in India when 58-1/2 years old.
39:12 Richness of study period under Lois LeBar and Kenneth Kantzer.
40:17 British system of degrees offered from 1968.
40:51 Career of students.
41:58 Development of Christian Education materials for India; Alford as Editor; present revision by Indians.
42:25 Students' use of their training at home and abroad.
43:25 Reactions of westerner to Indian culture; shopping in bazaars; compound life and contacts in villages; isolation for health reasons; servants.
44:27 End of side 2.
Tape T1 - side 3
00:00 Beginning of tape.
00:05 Overlap from side 2.
05:50 Entertaining Indian people and faculty members.
06:29 Indigenous home visits.
08:21 Break in recording.
08:36 Difficulties of communicating with Muslims, Hindus, in mid-1940's.
09:28 Acceptance of women; American "professor-woman" as single woman"s title in India.
11:00 Respect of Indians for TEAM medical work; TEAM conferences in Bombay.
12:02 Trips to Bombay for supplies; Spiritual Life Centers.
13:38 Malaria; appendicitus operation; cancer operation in Bombay, Parsi surgeon, 1950. Other medical and physical hazards.
17:24 Knowledge that time for her was completed; departure, November, 1970.
18:00 Job as library clerk at Biola College, January, 1971.
18:15 Entertaining activities in California; seven years at Biola.
18:45 Alaska Orphanage acquires acreage in Anchorage area for farm for boys; visits to them on each furlough.
20:05 Hardships at the Orphanage yet consistent financial support for other mission work and two missionaries.
20:21 Lazy Mountain Home Bible School for Eskimos and Indians.
20:49 Prayer support, protection over the years.
21:23 Furlough year, 1965-1966, speaking tour raised three-fourths of funds for girls' dormitory for Union Biblical Seminary.
21:57 Awareness of prayer support, use of training and experience over 25 years.
22:18 Interest in political events of these years; scripture verse given during Independence Day prayer.
24:30 Death of Indians in aftermath of independence.
24:52 Visit of Lena Boyd, Presbyterian missionary, when Gandhi killed.
25:33 Post-independence refusal of new missionary visas after 1951; older missionaries still allowed to return.
26:37 Drop from about 100 TEAM members to about 16 today; Canadians given visas.
27:20 Contribution of Wheaton College to career and experiences.
28:20 End of interview.
The materials for this collection were received by the Center in May 1981, August and December 1982, and October and December 1984.Accession: 81-53, 82-115, 82-122, 82-180, 84-124, 84-149
Type of Material: Audio Tapes
The audio tapes listed below are located in the AUDIO TAPE FILE:
T1 - Interview of Zoe Anne Alford by Galen R. Wilson, recorded May 22, 1981;
reel-to-reel, 3-3/4 ips, approximately 105 minutes, recorded on two sides. LOCATION RECORD
Accession 82-115, 84-149
Type of Material: Books
The following items have been given to the BGC LIBRARY unless otherwise noted:
Alexander, Nelle Grant. Disciples of Christ in India (Indianapolis: United Christian Missionary Society, 1946).
Alford, Zoe Anne. The Christian Education Department of Union Biblical Seminary, Yeotmal, India: Present Status and Recommendations for Future Development (Wheaton: MA thesis, 1959).
Appasamy, A. J. The Cross is Heaven, World Christian Books, No. 13. (London: United Society for Christian Literature, 1957).
Bach, T. J. Figures And Facts From South America. (Chicago: Scandia Printing, 1927).
Bakhti, - . Adventures of Saroja The Rebel. (Madras: Evangelical Literature Service, n.d.).
Brown, W. Norman. The United States and India and Pakistan. (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1953).
Carmichael, Amy. Jambulinga: The Story Of A Dacoit. (Secunderabad, Deccan, India: All India Christian Book Club, 1955).
Cattell, Catherine DeVol. That They May Know: Village Preaching Visualized. (New Dehli: Masihi Sahitya Sanstha, c. 1956).
Cattell, Catherine DeVol. Till Break of Day. (Grand Rapids: Wm. B. Eerdmans Pub. Co., 1947).
Chapman, E. and M. Clark, edited by Marjorie Sykes. Mizo Miracle. (Madras: Christian Literature Society, 1968).
Davey, Cyril J. The Yellow Robe. (London: SCM Press Ltd., 1957).
Fleming, Daniel Johnson. Contacts With Non-Christian Cultures. (New York: George H. Doran Co., 1923).
Garrison, K. D. An Outcaste Transformed. (New York: The Christian and Missionary Alliance, 1937).
Graham, William F. Prayer. (Minneapolis: Billy Graham Evangelistic Association, 1955) (pamphlet).
Hamilton, E. H. Not Worthy To Be Compared and The Miracle Baby. (1936).
Hazelton, Anne, ed. Lamp of Grace. (London: China Inland Mission - Overseas Missionary Fellowship, 1955).
Linn, Minnie V. Dr. Hugh H. Linn: Medical Missionary. (Mangalore, S. India: Basel Mission Press, c. 1950).
Malcolm, Howard. Travels in Southeastern Asia..., Vol. 2. (Boston: Gould, Kendall & Lincoln, 1839).
Moody, Dwight L., and Ira D. Sankey. The Gospel Tidings. (New York: F. O. Evans & Co., 1878).
Mukti, Ramabai. Trying To Be Saved By Their Own Merit. (Kedgaon Poona District, India: Ramabai Mukti Mission Press, 1936).
Norrish, A E. Christian Leadership. (New Dehli: Masihi Sahitya Sanstha, 1963).
Pape, Dorothy. Branch Of God's Planting. (Chicago: The Evangelical Alliance Mission, 1962).
Poonen, Zac. Needed...Men of God. (Bombay: Gospel Literature Service, 1971).
Pousma, Bert. Signs on the Road to Heaven. (Farmington, NM, 1942).
Ramabai, Pandita. A Testimony. (Kedgaon Poona District, India: Ramabai Mukti Mission Press, 1936).
Sanders, J. Oswald. Expanding Horizons. (Auckland: Auckland Press, 1971).
Scandinavian Alliance Mission. Songs of Missionary Conquest. (Chicago: Scandinavian Alliance Mission of North America, 1931).
Singh, Bakht. How I Got JOY UNSPEAKABLE and FULL OF GLORY. (Bombay: The Gospel Literature Service, 1945) (pamphlet).
South Indian Missionary (?). Open Windows. (Madras: Wellcome Press, n.d.).
Terry, Carol. Kept. (Philadelphia: American Council of the Ramabai Mukti Mission, 1945).
Wherry, E. M., S. M. Zwemer, and C. G. Mylrea. Islam and Missions. (New York: Fleming H. Revell Co., 1911).
Yardy, Jessie. Adam to Moses: Christ and Great Bible Heroes Series, Junior Course, 1st year. (Calcutta: Evangelical Literature Depot, n.d.) Teacher manual and student books #1-4.
______. Five Women of Burma. (New York: Woman's American Baptist Foreign Mission Society, n.d.).
______. India Responds. (Melbourne: Australian Council of the Ceylon and India General Mission, 1940).
______. Rearing A Distinctive Christian Family. (Umri, Yeotmal District, India: Paul W. Yardy, 1964).
______. Sadhu Sundar Singh. (Calcutta: Evangelical Literature Depot, 1960). LOCATION RECORD
Type of Material: Oversize Materials
The following items have been given to the OS FILES unless otherwise noted:
Elements of Christian Education; 1960-1968, n.d. (OS 24) From folder 2-2.
Free Methodist Publicity Packet, 1972? (OS 24) From folder 2-9.
Maps; 1947-1969. (OS 24) From folder 7-12.
Nagaland. (OS 24) Photographs from Indian calendars depicting a Naga warrior and a military
cemetery in Kohima, Nagaland, India. 1973. From folder 10-10. LOCATION RECORD
Accession 82-115, 82-180, 84-124
Type of Material: Periodicals
The following items have been given to the BGC LIBRARY unless otherwise noted:
AIM (Evangelical Fellowship of India)
Christian Education (Methodist publication)
The Christian Education Bulletin (EFI)
The Christian Education Bulletin (EFI)
Evangelical Fellowship Quarterly (predecessor of AIM) 1969: Vol. 17, No. 4 (Oct.-Dec.)
Light of Life
Mission Outreach (Indian Evangelical Mission)
The Missionary Tidings
ALFORD, ZOE ANNE. Portrait, individual, and group shots with Alford, including a photo of the new TEAM missionaries in India in 1945, a group of students at the Sunrise School, groundbreaking for the U.B.S. girl's dormatory, and the Moody Fellowship at Wheaton College. Also included are photos of Shijung Bendang Ao and family, Shakuntila Khare, and R. Premnath and family. C. 1925-1982. 17 b&w.
ALFORD, ZOE ANNE - AMALNER HOME AND NEIGHBORS. Alford's home and neighbors in Amalner, India. Includes images of Indian children and women, the mission compound facilities, Audrey Berthelsen, other TEAM missionaries including Alford, and downtown Amalner. C. 1946. 19 b&w. Photos, received as a unit affixed to construction paper, were subsequently removed from the paper backing.
ALFORD, ZOE ANNE - VISITS TO AMALNER, NAVAPUR AND PAROLA, INDIA; 1945 Shots include several of Alford; group at 1945 TEAM annual conference; dispensary and patients, church building and preacher with muscial team at Parola; 1947 church building and school at Navapur, and assorted friends. Also a shot of an Independence Day celebration. 1945-1947. 22 b&w. Photos, received as a unit affixed to construction paper, were subsequently removed from the paper backing.
AMALNER, INDIA Scenes and people and everyday life Alford observed during her language study, including a bridgegroom at his wedding, a pastor and evangelist, a holy man, a language teacher, Indian women gypsies, a water well, and wooden ferris wheel, and a bull-driven waterwheel. Also includes several shots of TEAM staff including Audrey Berthelsen. C. 1945-1947. 16 b&w. Photos, received as a unit affixed to construction paper, were subsequently removed from the paper backing.
CLARK THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY, IMPUR, INDIA Photos of facilities, during and following construction, and students. Also several shots of the Clark Memorial Hall and of a facility built for Baptist Centenary Meetings. C. 1972-1976. 11 b&w.
EVANGELICAL FELLOWSHIP OF INDIA. Group photo of 1960 anniversary conference, including Alford. 1 b&w.
JOHNSON, DAVID. Portrait photo of TEAM General Director. N.d. 1 b&w.
NAGALAND (OS 24). Calendar photographs depicting a Naga warrior and a military cemetary in Kohima, Nagaland, India. 1973. 2 color. From Folder 10-10.
NAVAJO INDIANS. Color postcards and photo depicting tribal customs, art and life. 1 b&w, 5 color. C. 1941, n.d. Items received as a unit affixed to construction paper, were subsequently removed from the paper backing.
NAVAJO METHODIST MISSION SCHOOL, FARMINGTON, NEW MEXICO. Shots feature the school facilities includcarved Navajo designs in chapel, students, Indian families, staff and their children, and Alford. Several shots are of soldiers during World War 2, among them former students at the school. C. 1941-1944. 33 b&w. Photos, received as a unit affixed to construction paper, were subsequently removed from the paper backing.
UNION BIBLICAL SEMINARY, YEOTMAL, INDIA. Consists photos of graduation classes, alone and with the U.B.S. faculty, including Alford, Saphir Athyal and Bruce Nichols, and shots of individual faculty members, Weyburn Groff and family, and Martha Burkhalter. 1959-1969, n.d. 13 b&w.
WATI, I. BEN. Photo of Wati with family. N.d. 1 b&w.
|I. Alford, Zoe Anne|
|1||1||Apologetics; 1967, n.d.|
|1||2||Old Testament Introduction; 1964, n.d.|
|1||3||Old Testament: Genesis & Exodus; 1964|
|1||4||New Testament: Mark; 1960, n.d.|
|1||5||Audio-Visual Aids; 1955, 1967, n.d.|
|1||6||Christian Education of Children; 1959-1967, n.d.|
|1||7||Christian Education Foundations; 1959-1960, 1965, n.d.|
|1||8||Christian Education Methods; 1956, 1964-1969, n.d.|
|1||9||Christian Education Organization and Administration; 1958-1962, n.d.|
|1||10||Christian Education Seminar and Educational Psych.; 1961, 1968, n.d.|
|1||11||Christian Education of Youth; 1960, 1964, 1969, n.d.|
|1||12||Christian Education of Youth; 1963-1970, n.d.|
|2||1||Educational Ministry of the Church; 1965-1969, n.d.|
|2||2||Elements of Christian Education; 1960-1968, n.d.|
|2||3||Miscellaneous Courses; 1966-1970, n.d.|
|2||4||Practice Teaching: G. Th. III Year; 1959-1966, n.d.|
|2||5||Story Telling; 1958-1963, n.d.|
|2||6||Theological Curriculum Building and U.B.S.; 1957, n.d.|
|2||7||Vacation Bible School; 1963-1967, n.d.|
|2||8||"Christian Home Yardstick" (flannelgraph); n.d.|
|2||9||Free Methodist Publicity Pocket; 1972?|
|2||10||"Ringo of India's Forests" (flannelgraph); 1959|
|3||1||Teacher Training Material: Nixon, Anna; 1964-1965, n.d.|
|3||2||Youth Material; 1969|
|3||3||Elementary; 1925-1926, n.d.|
|3||4||High School; 1930|
|3||5||University of Texas; 1930-1935|
|3||6||University of Texas: Extra-Curricular Activities; 1931-1936, n.d.|
|3||7||Moody Bible Institute; 1937-1940|
|3||8||Moody Bible Institute: Extra-Curricular Activities; 1937-1942, 1952, 1954, 1959|
|3||9||Moody Bible Institute: Evangelism; 1936-1942, n.d.|
|3||10||Moody Bible Institute: Manuscripts; 1939-1940, n.d.|
|3||11||Wheaton College; 1941-1945, 1953|
|3||12||Wheaton College; 1957-1959|
|3||13||Wheaton College: Manuscripts; 1943, 1958|
|3||14||Ao, Bendang Shijung: Correspondence; 1967, 1971-1973|
|3||15||Ao, Bendang Shijung: Correspondence; 1972-1973|
|3||16||Ao, Bendang Shijung: Correspondence; 1973-1978|
|3||17||Ao, Bendang Shijung: Correspondence - Financial Arrangements; 1972-1973|
|4||1||Khare, Shakuntila; 1960-1968, n.d.|
|4||2||Premnath, R.; 1974-1976|
|4||3||Candidacy; 1941, 1944-1945|
|4||4||Commissions; 1945, 1952, 1959, n.d.|
|4||5||Circular letters; 1946-1974|
|4||8||Finances; 1951-1952, 1958-1959|
|4||12||Finances: Contributions; 1945-1971|
|4||13||Finances: Expenses; 1945-1948, 1964-1968|
|4||15||Finances: TEAM Accounts; 1947, 1971-1978|
|5||1||Messages; 1938-1945, 1951-1978|
|5||3||Residency Documents; 1954-1969|
|5||4||Special Interests & Events; 1950, 1957, 1961-1962, 1966, n.d.|
|TEAM Missionary Assignments|
|5||6||Language Study; 1946-1947|
|5||7||Dharangaon Baby Home, Orphanage & Girl's School; 1948, n.d.|
|5||8||Sunrise School; 1950-1957|
|5||9||Calvert Method Materials; 1952|
|5||10||Christmas Programs; 1952-1956|
|5||11||Union Biblical Seminary: Catalogs; 1958-1974|
|5||12||Faculty - Alford, Zoe Anne; 1961-1968|
|5||13||Faculty - Kline, Frank & Elizabeth; 1956-1957, 1964, 1974, n.d.|
|5||14||Faculty - Other; 1948, 1951, 1964-1974, n.d.|
|5||15||Graduates; 1961-1964, n.d.|
|5||16||Graduation Programs; 1960-1970|
|5||17||History; 1950-1977, n.d.|
|5||18||Local Contacts and Outreach; 1953-1966, n.d.|
|5||19||Miscellaneous; 1959-1971, n.d.|
|6||1||Publications - General; 1954, 1962-1969, 1976, 1980|
|6||2||Publications - The Light; 1959-1967|
|6||3||Publications - UBS Challenge; 1965-1970, 1974|
|6||4||Students; 1967, n.d.|
|6||5||Autobiographical Notes; 1931-1951, 1965-1973, 1981, n.d.|
|6||6||Central Christian Church: Newsletters; 1978-1981|
|6||7||Circular Letters; 1971-1982|
|6||8||Employment: Teaching; 1931, 1936|
|6||9||Employment: Navajo Methodist Mission School; 1940-1952, 1957|
|6||10||Employment: Job Search; 1970-1971|
|6||11||Employment: Biola College; 1970-1977|
|6||12||Employment: Job Search; 1976-1977|
|6||13||Employment: Central Christian Church; 1979-1981|
|6||14||Family; 1908-1981, n.d.|
|6||15||Finances; 1927-1928, 1970-1974, 1980|
|7||1||Honor Societies & Professional Memberships; 1931, 1945, 1966-1971|
|7||2||Inheritance & TEAM Trust; 1956-1973|
|7||3||Correspondence: Understanding the Pupil and Understanding Youth; 1969-1970|
|7||4||Manuscripts: Understanding the Pupil and Understanding Youth; 1957, 1964, 1970|
|7||5||Miscellaneous Correspondence; 1970-1981|
|7||6||Art; 1978-1979, n.d.|
|7||7||Clippings (Christian); 1957-1977, n.d.|
|7||8||Clippings (Secular); 1965-1975, n.d.|
|7||9||Clippings: Social Problems; 1969-1971|
|7||10||History (Christian); 1943-1970, n.d.|
|7||11||History (National); 1948, 1965, n.d.|
|7||12||Maps; 1947-1969, n.d.|
|7||13||Neighboring Nations; 1943-1972, n.d.|
|7||15||Religions; 1946-1972, n.d.|
|7||16||Bethel Agricultural Fellowship; 1976|
|7||17||Christian Education Evangelical Fellowship of India; 1959-1982|
|7||18||Evangelical Fellowship of India; 1964-1976, n.d.|
|7||19||Evangelical Literature Fellowship of India; 1956-1959|
|8||1||Federation of Evangelical Churches of India: Bulletin; 1963, 1977-1981|
|8||2||Hindustan Bible Institute; 1966-1977, n.d.|
|8||3||Indian Evangelical Mission; 1970, 1981|
|8||4||India Evangelical Missions, Inc.; 1970-1972, n.d.|
|8||5||Miscellaneous Missions; 1956-1973, n.d.|
|8||6||Ramabai Mukti Mission; 1940-1982, n.d.|
|8||7||Ramabai Mukti Mission: Annual Reports; 1946-1967|
|8||8||Youth for Christ; 1956-1965|
|8||9||Baptist Mid-Missions; 1942-1982, n.d.|
|8||10||Billy Graham Evangelistic Association; 1956|
|8||11||Christian and Missionary Alliance; 1950-1973|
|8||12||Christian Home Committee; 1942-1967, n.d.|
|8||13||Christian Home Movement: The Christian Home; 1947-1964, n.d.|
|8||14||Conservative Baptist Foreign Mission Society; 1972-1973, n.d.|
|8||15||Disciples of Christ, n.d.|
|8||16||Free Methodist and Wesleyan Methodist; 1957-1972, n.d.|
|9||1||Free Methodist: Missionary Tidings; 1954-1971|
|9||2||Free Methodist: Rambo, Victor; 1940, 1955|
|9||3||Independent Churches & Direct Support Missionaries; 1940, 1951, 1969-1971|
|9||4||Lay Workers Institute; 1961-1966|
|9||5||Methodist Church in Southern Asia and Medical College and Hospital; 1944-1947|
|9||6||Miscellaneous; 1940-1978, n.d.|
|9||7||Ohio Yearly Meeting of Friends, n.d.|
|9||8||Operation Mobilization: Send the Light - Ray Eicher; 1972-1977|
|9||12||Presbyterian Church, USA: Boyd, Lena; 1931--1947, n.d.|
|9||13||Women's Union Missionary Society; 1944, n.d.|
|9||14||Missionaries: Miscellaneous - Biographical data; n.d.|
|10||1||Missionaries' Correspondence: Miscellaneous; 1945-1977, n.d.|
|Areas of Ministry|
|10||2||Adult Literacy; 1977, n.d.|
|10||3||Bible Societies and Translation; 1964|
|10||4||Publishing Houses; 1969-1971|
|10||5||Theological Research and Communication Institute/Evangelical Theological Society; 1978|
|10||6||Vacation Bible School Ministries; 1959, 1969-1973, n.d.|
|10||7||Ao Naga Baptist Church Council and Centenary; 1972, n.d.|
|10||8||Clark Theological College: History; 1970-1982, n.d.|
|10||9||Clark Theological College: Library; 1970-1975, n.d.|
|10||11||Nangshila, Sen; 1963-1968|
|10||12||Wati, I. Ben; 1967-1982|
|10||13||England, Zaida; 1943-1944, 1978, n.d.|
|10||14||Fields Other Than India; 1942-1946, n.d.|
|10||15||General; 1941-1975, n.d.|
|10||16||Kvasse, Margot; 1953-1964|
|10||17||Light of Life Bible Correspondence School; 1956-1959|
|10||18||Light of Life Bible Correspondence School; 1956-1973, n.d.|
|10||19||Light Of Life Bible Correspondence School: Lessons; n.d.|
|10||21||News Items; 1940-1978, n.d.|
|11||1||Olson, Walter S.; 1940-1943, 1972|
|11||2||Prayer and Praise; 1946-1947|
|11||3||Publications; 1940-1962, n.d.|
|11||4||Watson, Henrietta; 1942-1943|
|11||5||Western India Field: Conference Minutes; 1981-1982|
|11||6||Western India Field: Miscellaneous; 1970-1982|
|11||7||Western India Field: Prayer Letters; 1976-1982|
|11||8||Western India Field: Statistics; 1980-1981|
|11||9||Western India Field: TEAM Trust - Minutes; 1981-1982|
|11||10||Word of Life Press: Couture, Robert F. & Jean; 1958, 1977, n.d.|