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Ephemera of Alfred Robert Tucker - Collection 135


[Note: What follows is a description of the documents in this collection which are available for use at BGC Archives in Wheaton, Illinois, USA. The actual documents are not, in most cases, available online, only this description of them. Nor are they available for sale or rent.]

Table of Contents

Brief Description of This Collection

Title Page and Restrictions

Biography of Alfred Tucker

An Essay on the Contents of the Collection (Scope and Content)

Other Information Which Will Be Helpful to the User of This Guide

Lists of Books and Photographs in This Collection (Location Records)
    Books
    Photographs
List of the Contents of Boxes of Paper Records in This Collection (Container List)



Brief Description.
Correspondence, maps, clippings, pamphlets, photographs, and sketches relating to Tucker, Anglican Bishop of Uganda. Materials deal with church affairs in Uganda and Kenya and with a biography of Tucker planned by Mary Carus-Wilson.


Collection 135 [July 22, 2014]
Tucker, Alfred Robert; 1849-1914
Ephemera; 1890-1927, n.d.
2 Boxes (DC; .65 cubic feet), Photographs

Restrictions

There are no restrictions on the use of this collection.


Biography

Alfred Robert Tucker was born April 1, 1849, the second of five sons, to two artists, Edward Tucker and Julia Maile. The family lived in Ambleside in the Lake District. Alfred was trained as an artist and painted under his mother's maiden name, Alfred Maile. As a result of an exhibition of his work, he met and married Josephine Sim, a member of the Society of Friends and the daughter of William Fisher Sim of Southport, Lancashire, England. They had one son, Hathaway. By 1874 he was successful enough to have his paintings exhibited at the Royal Academy. In the process of painting a picture of a homeless mother and child, he decided that his life work should instead be aiding the needy and he subsequently entered Christ Church, Oxford, graduating in 1882 at age thirty-three. Admitted to deacon's Orders in the Anglican Church, he spent the next three years working under E. P. Hathaway at St. Andrew-the-Less, Clifton. In 1885 he began work as a Curate at Durham with Rev. H. E. Fox, Vicar of St. Nicholas.

Early in the year 1890 the Church Missionary Society was searching for a successor to the late Bishop Parker who had been sent to the newly-created See of Eastern Equatorial Africa. He died of fever before reaching his post, and was to have succeeded the late Bishop Hannington, who had been murdered by tribesmen, also before reaching his territory. Because Tucker had written the Society requesting duty in Africa, he was selected for the post, the first Curate to become a Bishop. On the evening of his consecration at Lambeth Parish Church, May 1890, he departed for Africa. He arrived in Uganda on Christmas day, 1890, having walked nine-hundred miles to the interior.

For the next twenty years Bishop Tucker administered the work of the area of Central East Africa, becoming Bishop of Uganda in 1899 when the diocese was divided into three territories. One of his first acts was to authorize the translation of Scriptures into native languages instead of Swahili. In 1895 he recruited the first women missionaries in Africa as teachers. Though in 1890 no medical facilities existed, by 1901 he had originated hospitals with 158 beds, and clinics serving 127,000 a year. In these years he also set up primary schools, high schools and a college for chiefs' sons, "King's School," to train African Christians. The work of the diocese included setting up trade schools to train workers in a changing technology. Largely as a result of Tucker's vigorous appeals and continuous action, slavery was ultimately abolished under the British Protectorate in October 1907. during his service in Africa the number of lay evangelists rose from six to 2,036, with thirty-two native clergy. In 1891 there were seventy communicants, and in 1907, 18,078. The number of worshipers rose from 25,300 in 1897 to 52,471 in 1907, and the number of churches from 321 to 1,070 during the same years.

He returned to England for the first time in 1891, where he gave a successful appeal at Exeter Hall for support of the missionary work of the African diocese. After the death of Queen Victoria, he returned again in 1902 for the coronation of Edward VII, taking with him the Premier of Uganda and the tutor of King Daudi. The latter Tucker had confirmed as a Christian. He was the son of King M'Wango, who had ordered the murder of Hannington, the first Anglican bishop sent to Uganda. In 1906 Tucker was sent to Karlsbad, Austria, to recuperate from accumulated illnesses. The autobiographical account of his experiences, Eighteen Years in Uganda and East Africa, in two volumes and illustrated with his own water colors, was published in 1908. While in England to raise funds, his weakened physical condition led him to accept a position as Canon of Durham Cathedral. He served there from 1911 until his sudden death in Durham while attending a meeting of a Committee on Faith and Order, June 15, 1914.

He was eulogized in The Guardian as one of the "most gifted pioneer missionary Bishops." As stated in his autobiography, his desire was ". . . not to turn them into Black Englishmen . . . rather to strengthen their own national characteristics." His leadership in Africa was distinguished by the encouragement of a native black church in which ". . . not a single half-penny of English money" was used to support its clergy, teachers, and evangelists.

Scope and Content

The first box in this collection contains primarily letters written by Tucker to various people. Folders 1-1 through 1-3 contain Tucker's letters from Africa and England to his family, friends, and biographer, Mary Carus-Wilson. Folder 1-4 contains correspondence to Ashley Carus-Wilson. Folder 1-5 contains responses from friends and co-workers requested by Mrs. Carus-Wilson for use in her biography. Folder 1-6 includes newspaper clippings, magazine articles, and miscellaneous items described below. There are nineteen photographs of Tucker's sketches and one portrait of Tucker. The material is in chronological order imposed by the archivist. Penciled notations in brackets in the right-hand corner are added by the archivist.

This collection is distinguished by its intimate picture of African life and the missionary church in this part of Africa at a period when technology was first introduced, describing effects of the first railroad, telegraph and steam launches. It also presents a detailed story of the interaction of missionary and political forces which combined to abolish slavery in this territory.

The letters from Bishop Tucker in folders 1-1 through 1-3 describe his daily life as an itinerant bishop, which included portage marches to all sections of the interior to visit churches and mission stations to baptize, confirm, administer communion and ordain and train clergy and lay evangelists, and planning for construction of a cathedral at Mengo and churches for native English congregations. He describes the problems of portage marches which included extremes of weather, illness, desertion of porters, dangers from tribesmen, and difficulties of terrain. The medical work of the Doctors Cook, development of schools, arrangements for translations and his contacts with George Pilkington, relationships with Roman Catholic missionaries, Muslims and the Sultan of Zanzibar are covered in these letters. He details also the legal steps required which led to the abolition of slavery and alleviation of suffering and expansion of mission territory as a result of the railroad, steam boat and telegraph. (Joan Plubell Mattia has suggested that the letters in these folders addressed to "My Dear Brother" are to Rev. H. E. Fox, secretary of the Church Missionary Society. Ms. Mattia made the transcripts to correspondence which researchers will find in folders 1-1, 1-2, 1-3, and 2-1.)

Correspondence in folder 1-4 contains a letter from George Pilkington to Professor Ashley Carus-Wilson discussing his return from Uganda to arrange for publication of translations of the New Testament. A second letter to Carus-Wilson from K. Borup concerns a journal and photographs from East Africa to be circulated in Canada. A third letter concerns publications of the Canadian Church Missionary Association branch of the Church Missionary Society, England.

Folder 1-5 contains responses from friends and co-workers of Tucker for the biography of Mrs. Carus-Wilson. They describe his personal habits and personality, abilities as a statesman, artist, and spiritual leader, his physical and moral courage, and relationships with his European colleagues and Africans. The Carus-Wilson book was interrupted by the war and correspondence in 1927 indicated that it had no yet been completed. The folder does not include information on its publication.

Folder 1-6 contains newspaper and magazine clippings of eulogies of Tucker at the time of his death, statistics on Africa, missionary hymns and prayers, mission maps and lists of slides of mission territories.

The second box in this collection includes correspondence, pamphlets, and sketches. The correspondence (folder 2-1) consists of letters written by Tucker to a colleague and to his biographer. They describe plans for a party of missionaries to travel from the coast to Uganda, comments on Roman Catholic missions there, and his experiences at the baths in Karlsbad, Austria, where he was recovering from illness. One letter outlines plans for viewing sketches made in Africa for use in the biography to be written by Mrs. Carus-Wilson.

The pamphlets (folder 2-2), Mengo Notes and Uganda Notes, 1900-1902, are unofficial newsletters from the missions to be distributed in Africa and England. They include reports of personnel, episcopal visits, medical missions, schools, progress, and problems with churches, governments, and tribal leaders. They are a valuable record of the period, with many details of current African culture, medical challenges, and changing governmental structure, as well as a chronicle of church growth.

Twelve plates of Tucker's sketches, folder 2-3, include one group photograph. A printed description by Sarah Geraldina Stock gives details of five sites, including Church Missionary Society Stations at Nassa, Kisokwe, and Usambiro.

The photographs include one of Bishop Tucker in Africa and nineteen photographs of his sketches of scenery, dwellings, churches, and daily life in Central East Africa and Uganda.
*****

Provenance

The materials in this collection were purchased from manuscript dealers in 1980, 1981, and 1986.

Accession 80-73, 81-29, 86-111
November 12, 1980
Frances Brocker
R. Shuster
S. Kouns

June 19, 1981, revised
Frances L. Brocker
M. Arnold

December 19, 1986, revised
Paul A. Ericksen
J. Nasgowitz


CHRONOLOGICAL LIST OF LETTERS
Folder From / To Date
1-1 Tucker to Hathaway, Freretown January 1894
Tucker to Brother, Freretown July 1894
Tucker to Council General, Foreign Office November 1894
Tucker to Brother, Mombasa December 1894
Tucker to Fox March 1895
Tucker to Brother, Freretown June 1895
Tucker to Brother, Freretown July 1895
Tucker to Kibrunzi August 1895
Tucker to Piget, Kikuyu August 1895
Tucker to Brother August 1895
Tucker to Brother, Eldoma September 1895
Tucker to Brother, Mumias September 1895
Tucker to Brother, Mengo October 1895
Tucker to Brother, Mengo January 1896
Tucker to Archbishop, Mengo January 1896
Tucker to Brother, Vera July 1896
Tucker to Brother, Surbiton December 1896
Tucker to Brother, Surbiton December 1896
Tucker to Brother, Hampstead January 1897
Tucker to Brother, Surbiton February 1897
Tucker to Brother, Surbiton March 1897
Tucker to Brother, Surbiton March 1897
Tucker to Brother, Surbiton March 1897
Tucker to Carus-Wilson April 1897
Tucker to Brother Surbiton June 1897
Tucker to Brother, Surbiton August 1897
Tucker to Brother, Surbiton August 1897
Tucker to Brother, Clappingsgate August 1897
1-2 Tucker to Brother, Mombasa December 1897
Tucker to Brother, Freretown February 1898
Tucker to Brother, Kikuyu April 1898
Tucker to Carus-Wilson, Surbiton October 1902
Tucker's extract from Stanley October 1902
Tucker to Carus-Wilson, Surbiton October 1902
Tucker to Carus-Wilson, Uganda September 1903
Tucker to Pilgrim, Uganda November 1903
Tucker to Carus-Wilson November 1903
Tucker to Pilgrim, Uganda November 1903
Tucker to Carus-Wilson, Uganda December 1903
Tucker to Carus-Wilson, Bungoro May 1904
Tucker to Carus-Wilson, Uganda May 1904
Tucker to Carus-Wilson, Uganda August 1904
Tucker to Carus-Wilson, Uganda December 1904
Tucker to Carus-Wilson, Uganda February 1905
Tucker to Carus-Wilson, Uganda May 1905
Tucker to Carus-Wilson, Uganda July 1905
Tucker to Carus-Wilson, Surrey January 1906
Tucker to Carus-Wilson, Uganda January 1906
Tucker to Pilgrim, Uganda January 1906
Tucker to ?, Rubasa April 1906
Tucker to Carus-Wilson, Surrey May 1906
Tucker to Carus-Wilson June 1906
Tucker to Carus-Wilson, Surrey July 1906
Tucker to Carus-Wilson, Karlsbad July 1906
Tucker to Friends, Karlsbad August 1906
Tucker to Carus-Wilson, Tirol August 1906
Tucker to Carus-Wilson, Uganda September 1906
1-3 Tucker to Carus-Wilson, Surrey September 1906
Tucker to Carus-Wilson, Surrey September 1906
Tucker to Carus-Wilson, Surrey October 1906
Tucker to Carus-Wilson, Richmond November 1906
Tucker to Carus-Wilson, Surrey December 1906
Tucker to Carus-Wilson, Bookham January 1907
Tucker to Carus-Wilson, Surrey February 1907
Tucker to Carus-Wilson, Mengo April 1907
Tucker to Carus-Wilson, Uganda June 1907
Tucker to Carus-Wilson, Uganda September 1907
Tucker to Carus-Wilson, Uganda November 1907
Tucker to Carus-Wilson, Uganda December 1907
Tucker to Carus-Wilson, Uganda January 1908
Tucker to Carus-Wilson, Surrey May 1908
Tucker to Carus-Wilson, Surrey May 1908
Tucker to Carus-Wilson, Lambeth Palace May 1908
Tucker to Carus-Wilson, Surrey June 1908
Tucker to Carus-Wilson June 1908
Tucker to Carus-Wilson, Murren August 1908
Tucker to Carus-Wilson, Surrey September 1908
Tucker to Carus-Wilson, Windermere September 1908
Tucker to Carus-Wilson, Surrey October 1908
Tucker to Carus-Wilson, Templecombe October 1908
Tucker to Pilgrim, Uganda December 1908
Tucker to Pilgrim, Bululu February 1909
Tucker to Carus-Wilson, Uganda March 1909
Tucker to Carus-Wilson, Uganda September 1909
Tucker to Carus-Wilson, Uganda November 1909
Tucker to Carus-Wilson, Kasaka January 1910
Tucker to Brother, Kekise January 1910
Tucker to Carus-Wilson, Uganda June 1910
Tucker to Brother, Uganda July 1910
Tucker to Pilgrim, Uganda August 1910
Tucker to Carus-Wilson, Uganda August 1910
Tucker to Carus-Wilson, Kensington October 1910
Tucker to Carus-Wilson, Kensington December 1910
Tucker to Carus-Wilson, San Rema January 1912
Tucker to Carus-Wilson, Durham March 1912
Tucker to Carus-Wilson, Durham April 1912
Tucker to Carus-Wilson, Durham May 1912
Tucker to Carus-Wilson, Durham July 1912
Tucker to Carus-Wilson, Durham August 1912
Tucker to Carus-Wilson, Durham August 1912
Tucker to Carus-Wilson, Durham August 1912
Tucker to Carus-Wilson, Durham August 1912
Tucker to Carus-Wilson, Durham September 1912
Tucker to Carus-Wilson, Durham September 1912
Tucker to Carus-Wilson, Durham September 1912
Tucker to Carus-Wilson, Durham October 1912
Tucker to Carus-Wilson, Durham October 1912
Tucker to Carus-Wilson, Durham December 1912
Tucker to Carus-Wilson, Durham December 1912
Tucker to Carus-Wilson, Durham March 1913
Tucker to Carus-Wilson, Durham April 1913
Tucker to Carus-Wilson, Durham April 1913
Tucker to Carus-Wilson, Croydon June 1913
Tucker to Carus-Wilson, Durham June 1913
Tucker to Carus-Wilson, Durham June 1913
Tucker to Carus-Wilson, Durham July 1913
Tucker to Carus-Wilson, Palermo July 1913
Tucker to Carus-Wilson, Durham July 1913
Tucker to Carus-Wilson, Durham September 1913
Tucker to Carus-Wilson, Durham November 1913
Tucker to Carus-Wilson, Durham November 1913
Tucker to Carus-Wilson, Durham December 1913
Tucker to Carus-Wilson, Durham December 1913
Tucker to Carus-Wilson, Durham December 1913
Tucker to Carus-Wilson, Durham February 1914
Tucker to Carus-Wilson, Durham February 1914
Tucker to Carus-Wilson, Durham March 1914
Tucker to Carus-Wilson, Durham April 1914
Tucker to Carus-Wilson, Durham April 1914
1-4 Pilkington to Carus-Wilson, Uganda October 1894
? to Mallinson, Toronto Junction October 1896
Borup to Carus-Wilson, Freretown November 1897
1-5 Tucker, H. to Carus-Wilson, Gloucestershire June 1914
Purvis to Tucker, Sunderland July 1914
Stock to Carus-Wilson, Whitehall Gardens September 1914
Mother to Carus-Wilson, Wellington June 1914
Fox to Carus-Wilson, Putney Hill Hay 1915
Stock to Carus-Wilson, Putney Hill May 1915
Saskmuth to Carus-Wilson, Southborough May 1915
Walker to Carus-Wilson, Hertfordshire May 1915
Cantaur et. al., Lambeth Palace May 1915
Saskmuth to Carus-Wilson, Smithborough May 1915
Fox to Carus-Wilson, Putney Hill June 1915
Kitching to Carus-Wilson, Ealing June 1915
Stoughton to Carus-Wilson, London June 1915
Paul to Carus-Wilson, Nottingham July 1915
Kitching to Carus-Wilson July 1915
Millar to Carus-Wilson July 1915
Skeggs to Carus-Wilson August 1915
Skeggs to Carus-Wilson, Palermo September 1915
Hogan to Carus-Wilson, London September 1915
? to Carus-Wilson, Bath October 1915
Smith to Carus-Wilson, Westbourne Terrace October 1915
King to Carus-Wilson, Croydon October 1915
Fox to Carus-Wilson, Putney Hills October 1915
Fox to Carus-Wilson, Putney Hills October 1915
Pilgrim to Carus-Wilson, Uganda November 1915
Stock to Carus-Wilson, Bournemouth January 1916
Daniell to Carus-Wilson, Cambridge May 1917
Carus-Wilson to Shepherd, Kensington Park July 1927
Carus-Wilson to Shepherd, Kensington Park August 1927
Cook to Carus-Wilson n.d.
Peobgu to Carus-Wilson, Gloucestershire n.d.
? to Carus-Wilson, Palermo n.d.
2-1 Tucker to The Rev. H. S. Fore (?), Freretown May 10, 1895
Tucker to Carus-Wilson, Karlsbad, Austria July 19, 1906
Tucker to Carus-Wilson, Putney Hill, S.W. February 23, 1913


LOCATION RECORD
Accession 86-111
Type of material: Book
The following items have been given to the BGC LIBRARY:

Tucker, Alfred. Eighteen Years in Uganda and East Africa (London: E. Arnold, 1908).

*****

LOCATION RECORD
Accession 80-73
Type of material: Photographs
The following items are located in the PHOTO FILE. Request by the boldfaced folder title at the beginning of each entry below:

TUCKER, ALFRED ROBERT. 1 b&w.

UGANDA. Photographs of Tucker's sketches of Uganda life. 19 b&w.


CONTAINER LIST
Box Folder Item
Correspondence
1 1 Tucker; 1894-1897
2 Tucker; 1897-1906
3 Tucker; 1906-1914
4 Carus-Wilson, Ashley; 1894-1897
5 Carus-Wilson, Mary; 1914-1927, n.d.
6 Newspaper Clippings, Miscellaneous; 1894-1915, n.d.
2 1 Correspondence: Tucker; 1895-1913
2 Pamphlets
Mengo Notes; May, 1900 - February, 1901
Uganda Notes; January, 1902 - September, 1902
3 Tucker Sketches; 1890-1891, n.d.



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Last Revised: 7/22/14
Expiration: indefinite