Billy Graham Center

Papers of Paul Pinney Stough - Collection 89

[Note: What follows is a description of the documents in this collection which are available for use at BGC Archives in Wheaton, Illinois, USA. The actual documents are not, in most cases, available online, only this description of them. Nor are they available for sale or rent. Some or all of this collection can be borrowed through interlibrary loan. ]

Table of Contents

Brief Description of This Collection

Title Page and Restrictions

Biography of Paul Pinney Stough

An Essay on the Contents of the Collection (Scope and Content)

Lists of Audio Tapes, Books, Films, and Video Tapes in This Collection (Location Records)
    Audio Tapes
    Video Tapes
Audio file and written transcript for T1

Audio file and written transcript for T2

Audio file and written transcript for T3

Brief Description.
Tapes of three oral history interviews, home movies, video tape of Stough's memorial service. Materials contain information on Stough's father, Henry Stough, Wheaton College, Paul Stough's work as a missionary for Africa Inland Mission in the Belgian Congo (Zaire) and Kenya from the 1920s to the 1970s, and generally on the spread of Christianity in Africa. The interviews were recorded in October 1979 and August 1980. Interview transcripts are available. For more information, please see guide.
Vol: 4 Reels of Audio Tape, 3 Films, 3 Videos

Collection 89 [June 12, 1997]
Stough, Paul Pinney; 1901-1992
Papers; 1979-1992
Audio Tapes, Films, Videotapes


There are no restrictions on the use of this collection



Paul Stough was the second child born to evangelist Henry Wellington and Helen A. Russ Stough. He grew up in Wheaton, Illinois, occasionally helping his father on his revival campaigns. He served briefly in the army during World War I but never left the United States. He graduated from Wheaton College in 1923 with a Bachelor of Arts and married another Wheaton graduate, Rachel Winsor. After several years spent in Florida, they became missionaries of Africa Inland Mission and departed for the Belgian Congo in 1928.

Stough's work in the Congo involved both educational and evangelism work. He was based at the Blukwa Mission in Djugu. He and Rachel had three sons before her death in March 1944. Shortly before returning home on furlough, he married fellow missionary Elizabeth Carolyn Quakenbush in March 1945. During his furlough he served as interim pastor of the College Church in Wheaton. He returned to Djugu in 1948, where his tasks were mainly supervising and training. He worked with the 400 native evangelists in the area, supervised local schools, and consulted with the elders of the local church. He also represented AIM on the Congo Protestant Council, which was a liaison group of the mission in the colony. In 1949 he was elected vice president of the Council. (His daughter, Helen, was born the same year). From 1952-1954 he served as AIM's field director for the Congo, Uganda, and French Equatorial Africa. This responsibility involved extensive travel. After a furlough in 1954, he returned to the Congo in 1955, based in Bunia, where he did work in literature distribution and visited prisoners. In 1956 he served temporarily as Africa area secretary for Evangelical Literature Overseas. This involved travel all over Africa to survey literature needs. Political unrest arising from the Congo's efforts to gain independence from Western control twice forced the Stoughs to flee Bunia - once in 1961 when they went to Uganda and again in 1964 when they went to Nairobi, Kenya. They stayed in Kenya (except for furloughs in 1967 and 1971) and managed the Mayfield House, the mission's guest house. In 1976 the Stoughs retired from AIM and returned to Wheaton to live. Paul, however, maintained his contact with the mission through his service on its Chicago area committee. He also held positions as editorial associate of the World Evangelization Information Bulletin, financial secretary for the Lausanne Committee for World Evangelization, and visitation pastor of the College Church in Wheaton. He died on August 13, 1992.

Scope and Content

This collection consists of two taped interviews recorded for the Graham Archives in October, 1979 by Rev. Stough and Dr. Herbert Klem. On August 26, 1980, Robert Shuster of the Graham Center staff recorded a third interview with Rev. Stough. The entries below are intended to highlight the topics covered in the interviews. Time elapsed in minutes and seconds is recorded to the left of the topics discussed in the interview. The index is keyed to the cassette copy and not the reel-to-reel original.

Tape T1 - Side 1 (Click to link to the transcript of this tape)
00:00 Beginning of tape; Introduction
01:00 Henry Stough's evangelistic activities
01:30 Frances Carothers Blanchard
01:45 Simultaneous campaigns with J. Wilbur Chapman
02:30 Organization of Henry Stough's own campaigns; Interdenominational Association of Evangelists; size of his team and their duties; William Erwin
06:15 Family participation in evangelistic campaigns
07:00 Building the tabernacle for meetings
08:30 Stough Sr.'s preaching style compared with Billy Graham's and other modern preachers
12:45 Billy Sunday in Chicago
13:45 Fruits of Stough Sr.'s meetings
16:15 Contents of Stough Sr.'s sermons; instructions to converts
18:45 Opposition from liquor interests in Pennsylvania; tactics used
22:15 Stough Sr. as a reformer; work in Altoona, Pennsylvania
26:45 Evangelism and sensationalism
27:15 Paul Stough's boyhood in Wheaton, Illinois
27:45 Decision to come to Wheaton College; quality of Wheaton students
29:45 Decision to become a missionary; the work of John Pinney in Liberia and the American Colonization Society
36:30 Student Volunteer Group at Wheaton College
36:45 Mission emphasis at the college
37:40 Professor Straw
39:30 The Excelsior Literary Society; the Beltonians; Congo Protestant Council
43:00 Harold Stam, Work with Henry Stough, period in Florida
45:00 End of tape

Tape T1- Side 2
00:00 Beginning of tape
00:05 Recap of End of Side 1
05:30 In the Army during World War I
06:00 Impressions of the Belgian Congo in primitive conditions
08:30 Evangelism and outschool work
16:00 Contacts with Colonial government
16:15 Attitude toward foreigners
17:30 Mission policy toward literacy; emphasis on the Scriptures into Pazande Bangala, Kakwa, Logo, Lugbara, Alur, Kingwana, and Baletha
19:00 Impact of schools on evangelism
19:30 Support of evangelists and pastors in the African church
21:30 Work of the Bible schools
23:30 Marriage customs, dowry and tribal customs
25:45 Changes in conduct through conversion to Christianity
27:45 Settlement of disputes by church elders; development of spiritual leadership
32:30 Economic activities of church members
34:15 Economy of the area
37:00 Life style of the missionaries; social contacts with Africans
41:45 Openness of the area to the Gospel; effect of independence on missionary work; opposition from the Belgian government to mission work
45:00 End of Side 2

Tape T1 - Side 3
00:00 Beginning of tape
00:05 Relations with the Roman Catholic Church; attitude of Africans to mission medical work and government hospitals
06:45 End of side

Tape T2 - Side 1 (Click to link to the transcript of this tape)
00:00 Beginning of tape; Introduction
01:00 Level of income in the Belgian Congo
01:50 Effects of the economy on the evangelism program
04:00 Life at the mission station for African workers
07:05 Drums summoning the people to daily devotions
07:40 Worship in traditional African religions; baptism traditions
13:00 Relation of African Christians to traditional African religions; opposition to the Gospel; relations with Roman Catholics and the effect of Vatican II
19:05 Possibility of Protestant and Catholic cooperation in missions
19:55 The adoption of Christianity to local culture
22:00 Literacy policy toward adult converts
24:30 Methods of presenting the gospel
26:55 Visit of members of the American Home Council to the Congo
34:30 Attitude of Africans to the Gospel
34:40 Natural courtesy of Africans
35:45 The relation of evangelism to the distribution of material benefits; evangelism in the AIM hospital; routine at the hospital
39:45 Reaction of colonial whites to AIM's work
41:45 Format of church services; hymns; musical instruments; Austin Paul
45:00 End of Side 1

Tape T2 - Side 2
00:00 Beginning of tape
00:05 Transfer of the mission work to Africans; the station at Blukwa; meeting with the church elders
07:15 Higher theological training for ministers
11:00 Transition of control from mission control to national control in Kenya; patterns of transition
17:00 The value of missionaries in modern Africa
18:30 The missionary moratorium; size of the African Inland Church in Kenya
20:15 Financial support of church work by Africans
23:30 Financial needs of African pastors; mission policy on supporting African workers; the congregation as an extended family
27:45 Government policy toward missions and churches in Kenya
28:45 Tribes in Kenya and Congo; principle of comity in Congo; erosion and criticism of comity
31:30 Mau Maus in Kenya and the church; Christians and the status quo
33:00 Political upsets in Zaire and Christians; evacuation of missionaries; Communist influence in the Congo; Simba uprising; anti-white, anti-Christian feelings; persecution of Christians
43:30 Retirement from AIM, return from Africa, activities in the United States
45:00 End of Side 2

Tape 2 - Side 3
00:00 Beginning of tape
00:05 The present day situation of the church leadership in Zaire and Kenya; Kenya Christian Council; the strength of Christianity in Africa
02:45 Ecumenicalism of the church in Africa
04:40 End of Side 2

Tape T3 - Side 1 (Click to link to the transcript of this tape)
00:00 Beginning of tape
00:50 Introduction
01:08 Responsibilities as field director
04:20 Meeting with the elders of the African Inland Church
06:40 Choosing a successor for Van Dusen; Dr. Carl Becker
07:48 Meeting with missionaries at the various field stations
08:25 Work of the field council
09:43 AIM's educational work; government subsidies for Protestant schools; debates in the Congo Protestant Council; accepting the subsidies and meeting government standards; effect of subsidies on other missions
15:40 Admission to AIM schools. Educational policy of Roman Catholic missions; out schools
18:10 A typical school day; levels of education at AIM schools
20:10 The founding of Scott Theological College in Kenya
22:00 AIM emphasis on Bible translation and Bible training schools; necessity of Bible training
25:11 The characteristics of Scott Theological College; the theological school at Bunia, Zaire, and Pierre Marini
27:30 Literature distribution; William Deans; system of distributing religious magazine; printing presses
31:50 Gospel Recordings, Inc.; the attraction of phonograph records
34:18 Prison ministry in Bunia in the 1950's. Type of service, reasons for being in prison, results
39:10 Conditions in prison; length of sentences
41:25 Work for Evangelical Literature Overseas, coordination of literature production, Harold Street; effect of revolutions in the Congo on ELO.
42:40 Work in Blukwa, Zaire
45:00 End of Side 1

Tape 3 - Side 2
00:00 Beginning of tape
00:05 Recap of end of side 1
02:00 Work as legal representative of the mission in the Congo
08:00 Independence of the Congo, Patrice Lumumba
11:15 The Mayfield Home, forced to leave the Congo; the economics of a guest house
18:45 Relationship between AIM home councils and field councils in the 1920's; activities and composition of the field councils.
21:30 Coordination between field councils through the inter-field directorate
23:00 Charles Hurlburt
24:00 Beginnings of Africa Inland Church; government with the church
27:00 Relationships between the church and the mission; the question of control of funds
34:30 The AIM bookstore in Nairobi
37:00 The Congo Protestant Council
44:00 Ruanda Revival Movement; Joseph Church; public confession of sin
45:00 End of side 1

Tape T3 - Side 3
00:00 Beginning of tape
01:15 Resumption of interview; conflicts arising from Ruandaism
07:15 George Van Dusen, Ralph Davis
10:35 Revisions of the AIM constitution
11:30 American's impressions of Africa and African Christianity
14:50 The Roho (spirit) movement, the prophets of the Roho, disputes within the mission over the mission, conflict with the government, the importance of drums
27:25 End of tape


The materials for this collection were received by the Center in October 1979 from Dr. Herbert V. Klem. Additional materials were received in 1979, 1980 and 1992 by Paul and Elizabeth Stough.
Acc.: 79-109, 79-114, 80-6, 80-109, 92-2, 92-68, 92-121

February 26, 1980
Robert Shuster
M. Buffington
H. Klem
S. Kouns

April 15, 1981
Robert Shuster
M. Arnold

March 11, 1993
Robert Shuster
M.L. Wohlschlegel

June 16, 1993
M. L. Larson

Accession: 79-109, 79-114, 80-109, 92-68
Type of Material: Audio Tapes
The following items are located in the AUDIO TAPE FILE:

T1 - Reel-to-reel, 3-3/4 ips, recorded on one side only, approximately 97 minutes. Interview with Paul Pinney Stough by Herbert Klem. October 1, 1979.

T2 - Reel-to-reel, 3-3/4 ips, recorded on two sides, approximately 102 minutes. Interview with Paul Pinney Stough by Herbert Klem. October 8, 1979.

T3 - Reel-to-reel, 3-3/4 ips, recorded on two sides, approximately 120 minutes. Interview with Paul Pinney Stough by Robert Shuster. August 26, 1980.

T4 - Reel-to-reel, 3-3/4 ips, 30-1/4 minutes. One side only. Recorded by Stough and BGC archivist Robert Shuster to serve as a narrative for the silent home movies F1, F2 and F3. A video of these films was combined with this sound track to produce videotape V1. July 6, 1992.


Accession: 80-6
Type of Material: Books
The following items are located in the BILLY GRAHAM CENTER LIBRARY:

Stough, Henry W. The Flight in the Air (New York: Gospel Publishing House, 1913).

______. Stubble or Silver (New York: Gospel Publishing House, 1913).

______. The Three-Fold Resurrection (New York: Gospel Publishing House, 1913).


Accession: 92-6
Type of Material: Films
The films listed below are located in the FILM FILE:

F1 - A 16mm silent b/w home movie with brief scenes of mission life in the Belgian Congo in the 1930's. Includes segments on: the elephant training school in Gangala na Bodio; Rachel and son Bill Stough traveling by carrying chair; activities in the Walendu village near Bunia; Walendu men practicing with shield and spear; threshing crops; children's games, including the Kongolo dance; boys and men exercising before attending school; funeral services and burial of Chief Risai; Paul and Rachel Stough and Olive Love providing medical and dental assistance to the Walendu; the AIM hospital at Oicha. 10-1/4 minutes. USE V1 INSTEAD OF THIS FILM. The video tape includes a narrative about the film recorded by Paul Stough in 1992.

F2 - A 16mm silent b/w home movie with brief scenes of mission life in the Belgian Congo in the 1930's. Includes segments on: rat catching in villages to control disease; paramount chief Kunga holding court and dispensing justice; weekly market day in Bunia; Pygmies of the Ituri forest making bark cloth and reenacting the killing of an elephant; distribution of salt to the pygmies by Harry Hurlburt; a group wedding of African Christians; a baptism service in Djugu. 8-1/4 minutes. USE V1 INSTEAD OF THIS FILM. The video tape includes a narrative about the film recorded by Paul Stough in 1992.

F3 - A 16mm silent color home movie with brief scenes about the AIM Bible school at Adi in the Belgian Congo ca. 1945. Includes segments on: calling people to services with a drum; exercises; Peter III and Mary Lou Stam; Peter and Edythe Brashler; volleyball games; women making dinner; pastor Yoane Akudri talking with African evangelists; the new church building in Adi; scenes from the primary school; students from the school holding services in a nearby village; the school's graduation service. 9-3/4 minutes. USE V1 INSTEAD OF THIS FILM. The video tape includes a narrative about the film recorded by Paul Stough in 1992.


Accession: 92-2, 92-68, 92-121
Type of Material: Videotapes
The films listed below are located in the VIDEO TAPE FILE:

V1 - 3/4" u-matic copy of films F1, F2, and F3, with the addition of a narration by Stough which was recorded in July 1992. The narration is slightly longer than the films. 30-1/4 minutes.

V2 - 3/4" u-matic copy of the first portion of a 1/2" color VHS video made of the memorial service for Paul Stough held August 16, 1992. This tape included comments by College Church pastor Kent Hughes, John Gration, Larry Fullerton, and three of Stough's children, hymns, scripture readings, and musical numbers by Marc Maillefer and David Helm. There was a great deal said about Stough's character as a man, missionary and pastor and his Christian faith. 62 minutes.

V3 - 3/4" u-matic copy of the second portion of a 1/2" color VHS video made of the memorial service for Paul Stough held August 16, 1992. This tape included the conclusion of the comments by College Church pastor Kent Hughes, a hymn and the benediction. 19-3/4 minutes.

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Last Revised: 10/1/01
Expiration: indefinite